Ba Llb 2nd Semester Notes Pdf 2

international relations pdf
5/5 - (1 vote)

Table of Contents

Ba Llb 2nd Semester Notes Pdf

hello Students,

In this post, you will read International Relation has been written according to the syllabus of BA LLB 1st year, 2nd semester.


Q. What is International Politics? Explain the difference between International relations and Politics. Discuss the scope or International politics.(BA LLB)

Ans. The term ‘politics’ connotes the people have wants and needs. To satisfy the wants people to come into contact with one another Naturally, the common needs and wants to give birth to ropes. Since all men may not have an identical interest, conflict becomes necessary. Group do certain activities and follow certain policies to fulfil their interests. The interactions of the groups to fulfil their interests to their maximum extent is politics. Thus the term politics involves three factors
(i) Interest, (ii) Conflict, and (iii) Power. This have been well explained by Quincy Wright that politics is “the art of influencing, manipulating or controlling major groups so as to advance the purposes of some against the opposition of others.”
As in politics, so in international politics, there are sovereign states whose interests are not identical. These interests of the sovereign states are called the ‘national interest’. The sovereign states, in order to achieve their interest, come into conflict with one another and as a means to achieve the ends, power is generally used. Thus, international politics is that aspect of interactions and relations of sovereign states in which the element of conflict or interest is present.
Definition: As has been said, International Politics is the study of conflicts and interactions common states. In the words of Mongenthau, “International politics is the struggle for, and use of, power among nations.” The term power denotes the quantity of influence which the nations exert on the minds and actions of the people of one another. Sprout and Sprout also defined International Politics are those aspects of the interactions and relations of independent political communities in which some element of opposition, resistance and conflict of purpose or interest is present. According to Thompson. ‘International Politics is the study of rivalry among nations and the conditions and institutions which ameliorate or exacerbate these relationships. Hartmann links that International Relations, as a field of study is focused upon the processes by which state adjust their national interest to those of other states.” Padelford and Lincoln define it as “the interactions of state polices within he changing patterns of power relationships.” Palmer and Perkins opine that International politics is essentially concerned with the state system. With the assistance of this definition it can be deduced that International politics is a process in which nations try to protect their incompatible interest by means of power.

international relations pdf
international relations pdf

International Relations and International Politics : many a writes have shown their inability in drawing a line of demarcation between international relations and international politics. Kenneth Thompson and Mongenthau consider international politics as an inalienable part of international relations. This superfluous resemblance does not make international politics the core of international relations. Both are different for each other as shown below:

(a)International relations included all kinds of relations i.e. political; economics, cultural, geographical legal and non-official, As Harold and Margaret Sprout say that all human behaviour on the one side of a national boundary affecting the human behaviour on the other side of the country, is termed as relations. International politics included only that politics aspects action and reaction are the subjects of international politics. Thus it can be said the international politics is the political aspect of international relations.

(b) The methodology of the study of international relation is descriptive, while that of international politics is purely analytical. In international relations, the factors are studies chronologically, while in international politics the basis of the study is what, when and how of the present with a relationship between the past and future.

It is established beyond doubt the international politics derives its strength from international relations. The former uses the latter as the basis and subject matter of study and hence both are one and the same timing.

Modern international politics aims at the establishment of peace through the international organisation and international relations too are based on this very principle. Thus, concern for peace is the common denominator between international politics and international relations.

Scope of International Politics: in 1954 the UNESCO published and edited by C.A.W. Manning. In this book international politics recognised as an independent discipline. But the dissenting not be ignored. The dissenters regard international politics and international relations as merely a duplication of subject-matter. During the last twenty year the discipline has evolved all the traits of an independent study and it can be deduced from its progress that it is well on its way to becoming an independent academic discipline in foreseeable future. Most of the scholars of international. relations ascribe the following aspects in the study of this discipline:

(i) State System: State system is the starting point to the study
of International politics, In the words of Palmer and Perkins. “As its basis is the state or rather the state system, it is here that the study of the world community and international relations must begin.” “The state system has influenced the international field for the last three centuries.
The individuals organise themselves in sovereign states and through them strive to fulfil their interests. The incompatible interest of these sovereign states generate conflict, and international politics are, thus, the natural corollary of the conflict of sovereign states.
(ii) National Interest: National interest are the goals of sovereign states which they pursue with the help of power. The foreign policy is invariably formulated on the basis of national interests. Thus the national interest can be viewed as the pivot around which international as a field of study is focused upon the processes by which states adjust their national interests to those of other states.
(iii) National Power: International politics is a struggle for power among nations. Whatever the ultimate aims of international politics are, power is always its immediate aim. National power is the factor which gives a nation a capacity to pursue its national interest and at the same time, it makes the nation effective is international relations.
Nations change their status and with it the interest as soon as power relation change. Thus, national power is the total effectiveness of a state in world politics. William Ebenstein put in thus: National power is more that the sum total of population, raw material and quantitative factors.
The alliance potential of a nation, its civic devotion, the flexibility of its institutions its technical know-how, its capacity to endure privation-these are but a few qualitative elements that determine the total strength of nation.’ E.H. Carr has included economic power, military potential and the power of mobilising public opinion in national power. Palmer and Perkins add the quality of diplomacy in the making of national power.
(iv) Foreign Policy: Sprout and Sprout regard foreign policy as the sub-category of international politics whereas Felix Gross and Russell Field consider international politics and foreign policy as synonymous terms. The sovereign states interact through their foreign policies and, thus, foreign policy in international politics is like a charter containing the national interests showing’ the areas of agreeability and incompatibility. It reveals the ideas with which the state would exert its influence and the limit of its total effectiveness.
(v) Instruments of international politics: As has been said,
national interest is the aim of states which are actors in international politics. The states, in order to achieve their aims, use many instrument, as the means. Diplomacy, foreign policy, international trade, economic and military assistance are the instruments for achieving national interests. The states use their instrument according to circumstance.
Some of the instruments are expressly used in peace times, while some are the instruments generally used in times of war.
(vi) Nationalism, Colonialism and Imperialism : Nationalism is the most significant factor of the modern state system. It has changed the classical nature of international politics and has been responsible for the shifting of interest from Europe to Asia and Africa.
The development of nationalism has affected the old form of imperialism be an important aspect of international politics. Dollar imperialism and economic imperialism are its new forms.
(vii) Control of International Relations: Beside of power, International Law and International Organisation are the devices which control and check the behaviour of the actors of international relations. In the same manner, regional alliance and disarmament to regulate the conduct of sovereign states.
(viii) Dynamic Elements and New Dimensions: In the post, Second World War Period certain dynamic elements sprang up in the international field which has complicated the study of International Politics, In the post-war period the world was divided strictly into two watertight compartment.
At the one end the Soviet Union was the leader of the Communist World and at the other was the U.S.A. In pursuance of its policy of containment at communism, the U.S.A. built a network of military alliance around the Soviet border, the Soviet Union too, bent upon breaking the U.S. monopoly on strategic weapons, develop atom bombs and other bombs in the fifties. This every-growing rivalry between the two superpowers has further complicated the field of International relations.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *