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Sociology notes for ba llb 1st year pdf
In this post we will cover the topic social control BA LLB sociology 1st year 1st semester sample model practice question Answer papers
What is social control? Discuss its types.
Meaning of Social Control
Social control is the control of society over the individual, Some of man’s’ tendencies are beneficial to society while others are detrimental to its interest. There can be no question of controlling the beneficial tendencies.
Thus, social control is exercised by society over undesirable or harmful tendencies of man. But is social control merely negative? Is controlling some tendencies its sole function?
No, social control creates those conditions in which man can be socialised and be prevented from performing antisocial activities. Some comprehends all these processes, methods, pattern, etc., which render assistance in this work. In this way, the term social control is fairly
comprehensive. This is not governmental control. Government control is based upon force and in enforced upon the individual externally. Social control is self-control. It keeps on changing in accordance with the changes in society.
Definition of Social Control
The various definitions of social control as provided by the sociologies, are not identical. Some main definitions are the following.
- Brearly. “Social control is a collective term for those process and agencies, planned and unplanned, by which individuals are taught, persuaded or compelled to conform to the usages and life values of the group to which they belong.” It is clear from this definition that social control includes those laws by which an individual behaves in concurrence with the mores of the group.
- Gillin and Gilling. “Social control is that system of measures, suggestion, persuation restraint and coercion by whatever means, including physical force by which a society brings into conformity to the approved pattern of behaviour a subgroup or by which a group moulds into conformity its members.”
- Maclver and Page. “By social order is meant the way in which the entire social order coheres and maintain itself, how it operates as a whole, as a changing equilibrium.”
- Gurvich and Moore. “Social control can be defined as the sum total or rather the whole of culture patterns, social symbols, collective spiritual meanings, values, ideas and ideals as well as acts or processes, directly connected with them, whereby, inclusive every particular group and every participating individual member overcome tensions and conflicts within themselves through temporary equilibria and take steps for new creative efforts.”
This definition of social control is adequately comprehensive. It has taken into account both the negative and creative aspects of social control and has indicated the means and processes of social control.
Types of Social Control
- Karl Mannheim’s view. Different sociologist hold differing views pon the types of social control. Karl Mannheim has accepted the owing two types of social control.
(a) Direct Social Control. This is the control exercised upon the sually by the reaction of the people living in proximity. Such
is found existing in the family, neighbourhood, play group and wamary groups. An individual is deeply influenced by the opinion
and Views of the parents, colleagues, neighbours and those who work with him. His behaviour is determined or controlled by their criticism, derogation, praise, suggestion or persuation etc. This is direct control.
(b) Indirect Social Control. This is the control exercise upon the individual by factors which are separated from him. Control of the individual by secondary group is of this type. Its prominent means are traditions, institutions, customs rationalised behaviour, changes situations and social mechanism, etc. The means of social control are invisible and subtle. In the existing complex society, the influence of the opinion, law, custom, etc., is conveyed in this way. It is not there are no individuals behind this control but these individuals, are not seen by the persons affected.
- Kimball Young’s view. Kimball Young has divided social control into two classes from the viewpoint of methodology. In this way, social control has been divided into the following two types.
(a) Positive. Reward has an immense value upon the activities of an individual. A large part of the population of society desires to be rewarded by the society. And, consequently they constantly endeavour to conform to the traditions, mores, values and ideals accepted by the society. For this, they are rewarded in the form of social recognition, fame respect, etc.
(b) Negative Under this are comprehenced those types of social controls in which a person is prevented from doing some thing by threat of punishment. Society, while it encourages the people to indulge in certain types of activity of promising reward also discourages and prevent people from many activities by fear of punishment, which can be moderate, severe, physical or verbal or in any other from. Examples of verbal punishment are defamation, criticism, ridicule, etc. An example of physical punishment is extradition from caste. Fear of these punishment helps to prevent people from violating the socially accepted customs, traditions, values and ideals etc.
- Other views In addition to the above mentioned form of social control two others forms formal and informal have also been recognised. The formal types are those which are specifically designed for control and include government, law, police, army jail, penal codes etc. Informal social control include those methods which develop by themselves according to the need of society and are mores, traditions customs etc. Some control is again of two types-1. control by sanction.
In this social control is effected by awarding the obedient and punishing the miscreant. Control by socialization and education.
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