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socialization full explained topic of sociology part-1
In this post, you will learn the concept of Socialization.
Q.1 Explain the concept of socialization. How does the process of socialization operate? What are the agencies of socialization?
Ans. Socialization and its importance.
Man is essentially a social animal. Because man is a social animal it does not mean that he is an ideal citizen, a good person or a very cultured individual. It only means that he is by nature fond of coming in contact with other people in society. This process of socialization changes according to the physical mental and moral differences. Sociologically a man speaking a man of a higher age group is different from a man of a lower age group man of a higher age group prefers in a group which is different from the group in which a person of lower age-group would like to move. In spite of all these members of society, man has to make so adjustment for living together and working together. Socialization is, therefore, very important in the life of an individual as well as society.
What is Socialization?
Socialization means coming together and making adjustments for doing work and discharging responsibilities of the society. This is what has been defined by Bogardus, “Socialization is the process of working together of developing group responsibility, of being guided by the welfare needs of others.” Every individual in the beginning in recalcitrant, rebellious and selfish. By and by his social consciousness develops and he starts accepting the social responsibilities. In the early period narrow mindedness, ego and selfish desires predominate. In certain matters, these traits continue their role throughout life. The effect is that the instincts and other inborn qualities continue to control throughout life. That is why Fichter has said that the socialization brings out the adjustment between man and his companion. As a result of this process, the man accepts socialization as a part of social behaviour and tries to make an adjustment with his companions. In fact, the existence of other members of society and making an adjustment with them become a part of man’s social behaviour. In other words :
“Socialization is a process of mutual influence between a person and his fellow man, a process that results in an acceptance of, and adaptation to, the patterns of social behaviour.”
Asch has defined socialization in the following words :
“The paramount effect is that man comes into relation not with the objects of nature, but also with other men and that in this encounter they are transformed into human beings. The environment of others and the products of their labour becomes a powerful, comprehensive region of forces within which each individual moves and has his being. Here each person discovers the existence of the character of human beings and becomes bound to them; here he discovers the reality of his own self, and of work, art and thought.”
Prof. Green has said that socialization is that process through
which a man develops into a social being. Similarly, Prof. Neumeyie
said that socialization is nothing but developing of an individual into a social being. Bogardus has in this regard, said that “Socialization is the process whereby a person learns to behave dependency together on behalf of human welfare and in doing so experience social control, social responsibilities and balanced personalities.” VV. Akolkar has also defined socialization as a process which brings out certain changes in the human personality. He has in this regard said, “The process of adoption by the individual of the conventional patterns of behaviour is described at his socialization because it occurs on account of his integration with others and his exposure to the culture in man, which operates through them.” Gillin and Gillin, have again treated Socialization as a process. They have in this regard said, “By the term socialization we mean the process by which the individual develops into functioning member of the group, acting according to its discipline, conforming to its moral, observing its traditions and adjusting himself to the social situation he beets sufficiently well to command the tolerance, if not the admiration of his fellow.”
Socialization as a process. The definitions given above show that Socialization is nothing but a process. It is a process of change and development. It begins from the date the child is born. As soon as the child becomes active, the process of socialization starts. It is this process that leads to the development of an individual, physical and mental trait are not sufficient until those traits grow along with other social qualities. Prof. Green, Neumeyer, Fitcher and Bogardus have drawn our attention to this very aspect of the development.
Socialization as a process, of learning. There are other scholars as well who treat Socialization as a process of learning. Johnson is one of them. He has said, “Socialization is learning that enables the learner to perform social roles.”
Kimball Young and Socialization. Kimball Young is one of that scholar as well who treat and believe that Socialization is a process of learning. Along with those he has also accepted that it is an internal process or inter-actional process or social process. This is what he has observed, “Socialization … will mean the process of inducing the individual into the social and cultural world; of making him a participant member in society and if various groups and inducing him to accept as the norms of the values of that society.” He has further said, “Socialization is definitely a matter of learning and not of biological
inheritance.” It means that the individual learns the folkways, more laws and other features of his cultures as well as the skills and other necessary habits which enable him to become a functioning member of the society. He learns to identify himself with the aims and values of his family, neighbourhood, class and community. He may likewise develop a competitive and oppositional response of his own in-group with regard to various out-group. In short, the whole process of socialization falls within the scope of inter-action or the social act.”
Some of the scholars have laid greater stress on the interactional or social process of the development. As a result of this social process, the behaviour patterns are formed. It is through this feature that brings about the mutual influence between a person and its fellow-men. It is due to this process that individuals accept and adapt to the patterns of social behaviour. It is in fact in the words of Bogardus, the process of working together of developing group responsibility, of being guided by the welfare needs of others. In fact, socialization has positive as well as negative aspects. Some have laid greater stress on positive aspects while others have laid stress on negative aspects of the Socialization. In fact, both of these aspects are important. That is why both of them have to be kept in mind while discussing other aspects of socialization.
Nature of Socialization. Man is basically a biological personality. This biological personality in the process of time develops into a social personality. The process through which the biological personality of an individual develops into a social personality is equally socialization. It is through this process that he learns about the norms, the values, and other social and moral traits. The social behaviour does not necessarily exclude the antisocial activities. They are also part and parcel of social personality or an individual. Hatred, jealousy, rivalry, struggle and such other undesirable qualities may or may not be helpful for society, but they certainly form a part of an individuals social behaviour and social process.
Kimball Young while talking about the nature of the social process, has said that the words socialization is used in three different, but connected senses : (1) In the wider sense this term is used for all those activities through which man gets acquainted with the socio-cultural world, (2) In the comparatively narrower sense this world indicates ‘social training of the children and is treated to be a part of child psychology. (3) It is also used but indicates ‘social learning’ which is connected with the moral training of the children as well as Youngman.
Process of Socialization. The definitions and the study of
socialization makes it clear that socialization is, in fact, a process. How does the process of Socialization take place as an important matter to be studied? In fact, this process starts from the very birth of the child. But at that time he lacks the essential elements of the social life. as he rows, he changes and moulds himself according to the standard, and the needs of the society. He identifies himself with the society also. Values, norms, way of life, instants, etc., continue to be imbibed by him. In short, we may say that at the time of birth the child has only natural instincts, but his natural instincts, later on, develop according to the needs of the society. This process of development is nothing but the process of Socialization. How does this process of socialization take place can be studied from the following points :
- Rearing. Bringing up Rearing a child plays a very important role in the process of socialization. The way, the parents shall rear a child, the way he shall grow and acquire the qualities and traits that are the results of that way of rearing up. That is why we find that the child has not been properly brought up or his needs have not been fulfilled, he acquires certain antisocial traits. Similarly, if a child is brought up in the atmosphere which is not ‘congenial atmosphere of the society, he squires that very trait.
. 2. Sympathy. Sympathy is a very important factor in socialization. It influences the social development of the child very much. In childhood, a child needs the help of so many, persons. He is rebellious, If the parents provide with his sympathy, he acquires self-confidence and also develops the attitude of identifying himself with the family and the society.
- Identification. If a child gets sympathy from parents, family
and neighbourhood, he develops the feeling of identifying himself with all of them. Consequently, the feeling of identifying develops with him and he imitates the language, the way of living the values etc. of the society and the atmosphere in which he is living.
- Imitation. The child, while living in the family and society acquires the traits of other individuals. He imitates them and tries to act accordingly. This imitation develops the social qualities of the child.
- Social teachings. In the family, the parents impart teaching to the child about the behaviour, ways of living and ways of behaviour in the society. This training and education development in the child the imitation, beliefs moral values and ideals. From family, the child moves to the school and there also he has imparted social education or
social teaching. According, to Miller ‘Dollard’, this social teaching is based on the following four elements : (1) Drive, (2) Cue, (3) Response. and (4) Reward. In fact, the child has certain needs and he tries to fulfil those needs and makes attempts for them. Sometimes, he repeats those performances as a result of which he learns certain things.
- Perceiving the situation. Man or the child has to change his or her behaviour pattern according to the situation. He cannot behave in a similar manner in all the circumstances. This process of perceiving the situation is very helpful in acquiring social ideals.
- New responses. When a person has perceived new situations, he acts accordingly. This acting according to the new situation is called a new response. If he succeeds in it, he repeals it. But if he fails, he gives it up.
- Mutual behaviour. When a man comes into contact with others, he is influenced by others and the others influence him also. He behaves with others according to the behaviour which he receives from others.
- Co-operation. As a result of co-operation, social qualities also develop in the individual. When he sees that others co-operate with him he develops certain qualities of co-operation. This is another way of developing social qualities and organizing social personality.
- Suggestions. The child also tries to adjust himself to the social needs according to the suggestions from others. Generally, these suggestions are received from the family, school and other agencies of education and socialization.
- Reward or punishment or praise or punishment. Generally, when a child acts according to social ideals and values he gets reward and praise. Consequently, he is encouraged to behave according to the needs of society. On the other hand, when he acts against the interest of the society he gets punishment and insult. That is why he is discouraged to act against the interest of society. Reward and punishment, therefore, help a lot in the process of socialization.
Impact of Socialization on human behaviour. Process of socialization is very important not only for the development of the individual but also for the development of society. The study of this topic shall be incomplete if the impact of socialization on human behaviour is not studied.
(1) Development of social qualities. When the child is born, the does not have social qualities, but through socialization, he is encouraged to act according to the accepted values and ideals of the society. The society rewards the child for acting according to its established ideals and punishes the child if he acts against those accepted values. Due to the development of social qualities, he is able to solve the problems and grow up into a good social citizen. But if he is not able to acquire these modalities, he becomes an anti-social being. This socialization also influences adult behaviour.
(2) Learning of social ways. The child when he is born is more concerned with biological needs. He demands food and gets it. But man’s entire behaviour and life are not limited to the fulfilment of the biological needs. He has to acquire certain social needs as well. these social needs are fulfilled due to the process of socialization. How should a man earn, how should he live, is a matter than he learns?
(3) Socialization teaches men and women about their distinct roles. At the time of birth, the male and female child behaves in a similar manner. they do not have distinct ways of behaviour. It is through the process of socialization that a male and female can be acquainted with their distinction and with the difference between the two.
(4) Socialization determines the behaviour of adults. Every culture or civilization has a different standard of behaviour. That is why the process of socialization differs from society to society. As a result of socialization, the values of the individuals are different. It all happens because the socialization of the child influences his adult behaviour as well. Agencies of Socialization
Having talked about the process of socialization, it will be useful and worthwhile to talk about the agencies of the socialization. It is these agencies that bring about this process. Without the study of these agencies, the study of socialization shall be incomplete :
- Family. The family has extraordinary importance in the process of socialization. It is the most primary group or agency that brings about socialization. Really speaking the influence of the family develops the personality of the child. The child after having born in the family becomes its member and learns several things not only in regard to the family but also the society. It is the society that teaches him the basic values.
- Playgroup. Playgroup is another important primary group that plays a very effective and important role in the process of Socialization. The child after having grown a bit goes out of the house and comes in contact with other children. These children form the ‘PlayGroup’. Normally these children belong to different families. They ha different ways of behaviour, life standard, etc. Due to this diversity the one hand they acquire certain traits and on the other hand, I learn the process of adjustment with other individuals. Play c. therefore, plays an important role in the process of socialization
- Neighbourhood or Neighbour. In fact, the neighbourhood and PL Group are not very distinct from each other. Playgroup is a grown child in which child plays while neighbourhood includes other grow up people as well. From the neighbours, the child learns about social values and also learns the art of adjusting with others. The neighbourhood, therefore, plays an important role in the process of socialization.
- Educational institutions. Educational institutions and such as schools and colleges, etc., are important agencies of socialization. It is in this institution that the mental traits of the children find a development. These agencies also help the children to march from darkness to light, and from ignorance to knowledge. In schools and colleges, the children come in contact with other children, who come from different backgrounds and have different ways of behaviour. The children learn to adjust to them. In the schools and colleges, with the help of books, children learn about the social system and conditions of other countries. They come in contact with the social-cultural conditions of these countries. This knowledge also helps the development to a large extent.
The teachers also influence the process of socialization. Their personality tends their ideals also influence the children.
- Friends. Child in the school as well as outside lives in the company of his friends. He gets influenced by them.
- Social institutions. The religious, political and cultural institution does influence the development of the child. These are called social institutions and have an impact on the development of the personality of the child. Due to the influence of these institutions, he acquires certain social norms and ideals. These institutions, therefore, play a valuable role in the process of socialization.
- Physiological factors or Physical structure. The physical structure also plays an important role in the process of socialization. A pers or a child with a deformed body is not able to acquire socialization a faster pace. Similarly, a mentally deficient or imbalanced person not able to undergo the process of socialization at a fast speed. So people are not able to assimilate things easily. In fact, they suffer from a lack of the process of assimilation.
- Psychological factors- Psychological factors also play an important role in the process of socialization. According to psychologists, a person acquires only those social norms that are useful for him, and this has an effect on the process of socialization.
- Needs. Physical and social as well as psychological needs to influence the social adjustment and social interaction of a person. In order to satisfy his physical needs, a.person acquires different social ways and group lives. Similarly, in order to fulfil his psychological needs, he acquires different social, customs. Similarly, in order to fulfil his social needs, he owns the social customs, traditions and pattern of behaviour. In short, all these factors play an important role in the process of socialization.