ba 1st year political science notes in English pdf|What is political theory b.a. 1st year notes
What is political theory b.a. 1st year notes
If we accept the Aristotelian dictum, that man is a political animal by nature then. It is an accepted fact that almost all our activities are related to the realm of Political Science. From morning till evening an individual participates in a large number of groups political and economic, religions and recreational participation in group life gives birth to a social relationship, which, according to MacIver constitute society.
Generally, the definitions of Political Science can be discussed in two categories viz, (1) Traditional definitions, (2) Modern scientific definitions. The traditional definition is based on the fact that political science is concerned with the state or govt. or state and govt. or is the study of the functions and organizations of the state and Government. (political science)
Traditional Definitions :
R. N. Gilchrist – “Political Science deals with the state and Government.”
Paul Janet – “Political Science is that part of social science which treats the foundations of the state and the Principles of Government.”.
Gettel – “It is thus a study of the state in the past, present and future of the political organization and political theories.”
“Acton – “Political Science is concerned with the state ard with the conditions essential for its development.”
The concept of political science as the study of state and/or govt. is not adequate. Its leads to an emphasis on and legalism. It ignores the dynamic process and result. It’s now conceded that political science should include informal organizations and behavior that supplement the formal structure of govt. and political forces that influence it.
Modern Definitions-Synchronising interdisciplinary approach to studying social phenomenon the definition of political science has also changed. The main aim of the new generation of political scientists is to explain life in relation to the struggle for power. The consequence is to lay more emphasis on the study of “political behavior” i.e. the behavior of a man in a particular political backdrop than on the orthodox analysis of the functions and organizations of government.
Power Concept – Writers like Lasswell Merrian, Max Webber. Russel, Walkins, and Margentharic (Modern Concept) refer to the dynamic nature of politics they consider power as its central concept Robson also holds. “It is with the power of society that political sciences are primarily. Its nature basis scope and results he focuses of interest of the political scientist is clear. It centers on the struggle or gain or retains the power to exercise power or influence over others or to resist that exercise.”
Given this view has been considered inadequate by co-writers like W. Esslinger. To limit it theoretically wrong and dangerous concept to him the substance of politics consists of order and organization. Power is a by-product or organization. Thus it is neither its end nor essence.
Politics and Political Science – Earlier the term “politics” denoted a comprehensive meaning of the study of the entire science of the state. Aristotle, the father of political science, used the term “politics” for the subject dealing with the phenomenon of the state. Originally derived from a Greek word, “Polis” or “City-state.” It embraces everything that touches the life of the state. Writers like Jollineck, Holtzendoff, and Sidquick prefer the term politics to political science. According to :
Cattlin – Politics is the study of organized human society. Political science goes beyond the state and that it deals primarily with the political aspects of the life of the community.(political science)
Criticism – The idea of identifying politics with political science has been an object of attack by the recent generation of political scientists
In modern usage the term “politics” has acquired a new meaning: Politics, in recent times, refers either (a) to practical politics, as meaning “the art of controlling a party and securing the nomination and election on the appointment of particular..persons.co_office” or (b) to the art of government, the act of directing or guiding the policy of the government towards a particular goal Theoretical politics deals with the basic problems of the state, without concerning itself with the activities of any particular government or the mean by which the ends of any particular the status attained practical politics, on the other hands, deals with the actual way in which governments work out the various institutions comprising political life. So the modern counter will definitely opt. for the term “political science rather than the word” politics, to describe the whole range of political phenomena.
Political Philosophy-Some writers have used the term “political philosophy” to denote the study of the state. They say that the state is a part of the universe which is a subject matter of philosophy. The study of the state is part of the study of the universe and hence a part of philosophy. * They also opine that political theory deals not only with political institutions as such out also seeks to discover the principle which underlines these institutions. In the study of what ought to be the relationship among the persons governing and those governed. The ethical notion among and in studying these notions we are definitely studying the conceptions of right and wrong a thereby studying political science as a part of philosophy.
Criticism-Continental cowriters have opened that political science is broader in scope than political philosophy deals with the fundamental problems of the nature of the state, citizenship, the question of duty and right, and political ideals. “To Gilchrist.” “It is .in a sense, prior to political science, for the fundamental assumptions of the former are a basis to the latter”. To conclude, therefore the term “political philosophy is not very apt. to designate the study of the state ‘political science.’ The proper title
The term “political science” is more exact and comprehensive than either “politics” or “political philosophy.”
TIT There is no consensus of opinion among the political thinkers as to its methods, principle, and conclusions.
(2) It is impossible to foretell what is going to happen as Astronomy cab tells. In other words, it lacks the elements which constitute a basis of provision. It!
(3) It lacks continuity of development. According to some thinkers, Political is not a Science, for Instance, G. Mosca holds that Political Science in its present conditions has not yet genuinely entered upon its science state. It
In order to conclude whether Political Science is a science or not, a discussion is required as to what is science? In case we regard science as systematic reasoning then we cannot deny the claim. It Political Science to be a science but on the other hand of science involves exact conclusions clearly defined subject to no exceptions We may not regard Political Science as a science R. M Maclver explain “the demand of science is simply that we avoid bias in our treatment of them. We must always be on our guard lest our personal variations distort the reality we are seeking to understand. We must as scientists care more for truth than for the consequences of truth.” According to Oxford Dictionary, Science is a systemized Knowledge. The function of science according to Thomson is “ascertainment, registration and classification of facts.” Thus the task of science is to classify facts recognize their relative significance and sequence and form principles of general application. (READ:BA LLB Political Theory -1 first year I semester Concept of state)