BALLB 1st Year Political Theory Scope of Political Science Sample Model Practice Question Answer Papers:
In this post you will read (BALLB Notes)Definition, Nature and Scope of Political Science and it’s relevance to Law.
Definition, Nature and Scope of Political Science (BALLB Study Material)
Q. 1. Define ‘Political Science and distinguish it from “Politics” and “Political Philosophy”.
Ans. If we accept the Aristotelian dictum, that man is a political animal by nature then. It is accepted fact that almost all our activities are related to the realm of Political Science. From morning till evening an individual participates in a large number of groups political and economic, religions and recreational participation in group life gives birth to social relationship, which, according to MacIver constitute society.
Generally the definitions of Political Science can be discussed in two categories viz, (1) Traditional definitions, (2) Modern scientific definitions. The traditional definition is based on the fact that political science is concerned with state or govt. or state and govt. or is the study of the functions and organisations of the state and Government.
Traditional Definitions :
R. N. Gilchrist – “Political Science deals with the state and Government.”
Paul Janet – “Political Science is that part of social science which trcats the foundations of the state and the Principles of Government.”.
Gettel – “It is thus a study of the state in the past, present and future of political organisation and political theories.”
“Acton – “Political Science is concerned with the state ard with the conditions essential for its development.”
The concept of political science as study of state and/or govt. is not adequate. Its leads to emphasize from and legalism. It ignores dynamic process and result. Its now conceded that political science should include informal organisations and behaviour that supplement the formal structure of govt. and political forces that influence it.
Modern Definitions-Synchronising interdisciplinary approach to study social phenomenon the definition of political science has also changed. The main aims of the new generation of political scientists is to explain life in relation to struggle of power. The consequence is to lay more emphasis on the study of “political behaviour” i.e. he behaviour of man in a particular political back drop too her than on the orthodox analysis of the functions and organisations of government.
Power Concept – Writers like Lasswell Merrian, Max Webber. Russel, Walkins and Margentharic (Modern Concept) refer to the dynamic nature or politics they consider power as its central concept Robson also holds. “It is with power of society that political sciences is primarily. Its nature basis scope and results he focus of interest of the political scientist is clear. It centres on the struggle or gain or retain power to exercise power or influence over other or to resist that exercise.”
Given this view has been considered in adequate by coriters like W. Gsslinger. To limit it theoretically wrong and dangerous concept to him substance of politics consists in order and organisation. Power being a by product or organisation. Thus it is neither its end nor essence.
Politics and Political Science – Earlier the term “politics” denoted a comprehensive meaning of the study of the entire science of the state. Aristotle, the father of political science, used the term “politics” for the subject dealing with the phenomenon of the state. Originally derived from a Greek word, “Polis” or “City state.” It embraces everything that touches the life of the state. Writers like Jollineck, Holtzendoff, and Sidquick prefer the term politics to political science. According to :
Cattlin – Politics is the study of organised human society. Political science goes beyond the state and that it deals primarily with the political aspects of the life of the community.
Criticism – The idea of identifying politics with political science has been an object of attack by the recent generation of political scientists
In modern usage the term “politics” has acquired a new meaning: Politics, in recent times refers either (a) to practical politics, as meaning “the art of controlling a party and securing the nomination and election on the appointment of particular..persons.co_office” or (b) to the art of government, the act of directing or guiding the policy of the government towards a particular goal Theoretical politics dcals with the basic problems of the state, without concerning itself with the activities of any particular government or the mean by which the ends of any particular the status attained practical politics, on he other hand, deals with the actual way in which governments work out the various institutions comprising political life. So the modern conter will definitely opt. for the term “political science rather than the word” politics, to describe the whole range of political phenomenon.
Political Philosophy-Some writers have used the term “political philosophy” to denote the study of the state. They say that the state is a part of universe which is a subject matter of philosophy. The study of the state is part of the study of universe and hence a part of philosophy. * They also opine that political theory deals not only with political institutions as such out also seeks to discover the principle which underline these institutions. In the study of what ought to be the relation among the persons governing and those governed. Ethical notion among and in studying these notions we are definitely studying the conceptions of right and wrong an thereby studying political science as a part of philosophy.
Criticism-Continental coriters have opened that political science is broader in scope than political philosophy deals with the fundamental problems of the nature of the state, citizenship, question of duty and right, and political ideals. “To Gilchrist.” “It is .in a sense, prior to political science, for the fundamental assumptions of the former are a basis to the latter”. To conclude, therefore the term “political philosophy is not very apt. to designate the study of the state ‘political science.’ The proper title
The term “political science” is more exact and comprehensive than either “politics” or “political philosophy.”
TIT There is no consensus of opinion among the political thinkers as to its methods, principle and conclusions.
(2) It is impossible to foretell what is going to happen as Astronomy cab tells. In other words, it lacks the elements which constitute a basis of provision. It!
(3) It lack continuity of development. According to some thinkers Political is not a Science, for Instance G. Mosca holds that Political Science in its present conditions has not yet genuively entered upon its science state. It
In order to conclude whether Political Science is a science or not, a discussion is required as to what is a science ? In case we regards science as a systematic reasoning then we cannot devy the claim. It Political Science to be a science but on the other hand of science involves exact conclusions clearly defined subject to no exceptions We may not regard Political Science a science R. M Maclver explain “the demand of science is simply that we avoid bias in our treatment of them. We must always be on our guard lest our personal variations distort the reality we are seeking to understand. We must as scientist care more for truth than for the consequences of truth.” According to Oxford Dictionary, Science is a systemised Knowledge. The functions of science according to Thomson is “as certainment, registration and classification of facts.” Thus the task of science is to classify facts recognise their relative significance and sequence and form principles of general application.
Q. 2. Discuss the scope of political science. Ans. The Scope of Political Science
From the various definitions, it is clear that the main point of discussion in the subject is state. Man wanted to meet his social, economic and religious necds. For that purpose he formed associations. State was formed like other associations. It is through these associations that man’s social life is developed and expressed. In Political Science we study different aspects of the state in detail. Põlitical Science tries to answer the questions like what is the present nature of the state, what it was in the past and what is the ideal form in future. These make the scope of the subject. Gettel explains it-“Political Science is the historical investigation of what the state has been analytical study of what the state is, and the political-ethical discussion of what the state ought to be.”
While discussing on the scope of Political Science we take into account the points of Gettel as mentioned above. But in the twentieth century new ideas and developments in the study of Political Science have given new direction and dimension to the subject and have broadened the scope of the subject.
The scope can be discussed under the following heads :
(a) Study of the form of the state as exits at present.
(b) Study of the state in historical prespective.
(c) Study of the ideal form of the state.
(d) Behavioural concepts.
(A) Study of the Modern Form of State
The state in its perfect form as obtains today is the result of the evolution and growth for thousands of years. With the development of
man’s social life, the nature of the state became more and more perfect. Csin lact man framed various associations in different fields, to meet many Of his needs in his social interaction. Stale is one such association. State
became the most distinguished association because of its importance. We study the modern form of this most powerful organisation, that is, the state in its various aspects. At the same tinie, the actual form of this association is also analysed. This forms the scope of the subject. While studying the modern form of the state, we generally include the following:
(1) Ends of State : The state had such an important role in man’s life. But philosophers have different opinions with regard to the ends of the state. According to Hindu philosophers state is the means, and individual can develop himself by remaining within the state. The ideal for an individual is self-realisation. Man can make his spiritual development as a member of the state. State helps in the growth of man Greek philosophers regard to state as the higher ethical Organisation. According to them state is the end and not the means. Plato regarded state as the developed brain of man. Aristotle could not imagine man outside the state. According to him individual is good if possible only within the state. Aristotle said. “The state is the supreme association that aims at the supreme good.” Modern thinkers do not accept stale as an end in itself. The aim of the state is to think of the all-round development of its citizens. Its end is not merely to achieve glory sor itself only.
(2) Study of government as a means : State depends on the government for achieving its ends-Actually the government acts as they agent of the state. We can understand the nature of the state by studying The organisation of the government. That is why the organisation and forms of government are studied in Political Science. We study the organisation and forms of government in theory and also in practice. There is democracy in a state, and there is dictatorship somewhere. Even in democracy there is direct and indirect form. Again it might be Presidential on Parliamentary in form. In dictatorship there might be military or Party dictatorship. Thus we make a complete study of government in Political Science,
(3) Study of different forms of government : The forms of government may be different according to the nature of the central authority. If the authority of the government is controlled by a single person then it is autocracy, il by some important persons that it is aristocracy, and if by the people, then it is democracy. We study all these forms in Political Science.
(4) Study of relationship between the people and the government : The society today is highly developed. Now the relationship between the people and the government has much importance. The relationship between the King and the people in a state is similar to the relation between the master and the servant. That is why people of such a state are called subjects. The people of England are the subjects of their emperor. This indicates their loyalty. In a democracy, the organisation of the government is the responsibility of the people. The people are the masters. In a communist country the government is a huge machine, and the people serve as the component parts of that huge machine. It is very essential to study the relationship between the people and the government in its various aspects in Political Science.
These aspects in our study of the modern form of government has been described by Gettel as the analytical study of what the state is
(B) Study of State in Historical Perspective
The historical study of the state implies the study of the growth of state in its various phases and forms in different stages of history. Modern forms of state is the result of evolution. This study of the history of the growth becomes an important part of the content of Political Science. It can be explained as follows:
(1)When and how the state came into existence ? Different theories have been enunciated on the origin of state. Theories like “The Force Theory”, “Divine Origin Theory”, “Social Contract Theory”, “Idealistic Theory” and “Evolutionary Theory”, etc., have explained different views on the origin of state. In some periods or other these theories had their own importance. So all these are included in the subject matter of Political Science.
(2) State in different Ages : When many families combine together to form a religious community, clan or race and live in a particular territory permanently, then the state is formed. In the beginning, there were small territories which gave protection to inhabitants from external aggression, and administered justice. The Greek city states were small states like these. In course of time, with the aim of greater protection from external aggression and to mobilise resources for further progress, these states formed federations. Athenian League in Greek was such a federation. Later the empire was built. Vast empires, like the Roman Empire or the Mauryan Empire was founded. In the middle ages, the states were feudal in character. An emperor used to rule over feudal lords. During the seventeenth of eighteenth century the nation state
came into existence, for instance, Great Britain, France etc. This process is still continuing. At present politicians are thinking in terms of organising large federal states. Many federal states have been formed. This evolution of the forms of states is a part of the content of Political Science.
(3) Study of the change in thinking in different ages : By analysing the forms of state in historical perspective, we get a clear understanding on the changes in the thinking of individuals. In the beginning the Divine Origin Theory was accepted. King is a part of God. So, to hate the king is to hate God. In India the element of divinity in Manu, Indra, Varuna etc., was accepted. The king of Japan was worshipped as the son of the Sun. This idea prevailed in Europe up to the eighteenth century. But not it has been rejected. State is created by man, and the ruler is the servant of the people. This idea has been firmly held. Thus, similar change in thinking is evident in different fields. This change in thinking is very important for student of Political Science. In modern times, people do not favour the traditional views. There appeared behavioural thinking in place of institutional thinking.
The fact that there has been continuous development with regard to the forms of state is very important in the field of Political Science. Gettel terms it as Historical investigation.
(4) Study of the Behaviour of Bureaucracy. The behaviour of Bureaucracy or the administrative services is a subject of study in Political Science. To meet the ends of a democratic or a welfare state is the sole responsibility of the permanent members of the Administrative services. We therefore study the structure and behaviour of the Administrative services in Political Science. The members of the Administrative services implement welfare schemes under the guidance and instructions of the political leaders. If unlimited power and authority centres in their bands, they tend to do cruelties to the people in place of doing good to them. The chief problem of study in Political Science is how to control bureaucracy.
(5) Study of Behavioural Concept : In contravention to the traditional thinking the behavioural concept emerged in the mid-twentieth century. This is an expression of discontent against the traditional concept. Peoples differ vastly on its details but , all agree that Political Science should be studied as an Activity or Behaviour. Gradually the stress of study shifted from the study of the political Scanned. with vi ganizations to the study of political behaviour. This behaviour is power
and influences the process of decision-making. The shift therefore moved , from state to political system.
(6) Study of the Methods
of Election modern democracy Election and Voting Behavior : In modern democracy
election and voting behaviour have acquired added importance. What is the form
of voting? how much are the people free to cast their vote? How much do our
voters comprehend the national problems? What is the election- system ? What
type of questions influence the voters ? Who do they (voters) Support or
disapproved? Do emotional questions influence the pattern of voting? The questions are very important for political leaders. Besides these, how the autocratic ,dictatorial or communist countries, in the garb of democracy, try to keep the people under their control, is a subject of serious study ?
(7) Study of Political Parties and Pressure Groups : The political parties have been
for a long time but their roles have been different in democracy and autocracy.
They behave differently, the mono, bi or multi-party system is an important
subject of study in Political Science. Pressure-groups influence the behaviour
of voting and executive decisions. They silently impress the entire political behaviour of the people.
(8) Study of the Social, Economic and Geographical Conditions : We cannot understand the behaviour
of a people unless we study the, social,
economic and geographic conditions. The conditions settle the ideals for the
people dear to their heart and formulate political culture. Democracy stand on
solid ground in England and a government can be replaced easily. Democracy does
not find favour with the Muslim countries. In spite of extreme poverty
democracy firmly stands in India. These are certain examples which speak of the
Social, Economic and Geographical conditions that go in making or unmaking
democracy a success in a country or a failure in another. We therefore study
these conditions in Political Science that govern the behaviour of a people.
(9) Study of Developing Nations : Even before the Second World War, the political
organizations of Britain, France, Germany, the USA, and Switzerland have been
studied vigorously in Political Science. The authorities on Political Science
have formulated standard from their study and judge the political system of a
developed or under-developed countries. They are studying their problems caused
by their development and industrialization.
(10) Study of International Politics and International Organization : We study
International Politics and International Organization under Political Science:
No country, in the present age, can progress alone.
The world has became smaller. An incident in a far-off country has a direct effect on others, Countries undertake special measures to develop mutual relations. Problems arising under International Politics like Balance of power, Block-politics, Non-Alignment, War and Peace etc. are included in the study of Political Science. The International Organization endeavours for peace, the decrease of the possibilities of
and the promotion of international Co-operation. The Organization also finds an important place in Political Science.