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BA LLB Sociology 1st year 1st semester sample model practice question Answer papers
In this post you will read Socialization theory with full explanation,
What are the main theories of socialization? Discuss in brief.
Ans. Theories of Socialization. Everybody recognizes the importance of different agencies in the process of socialization – Family is the basic and the most important unit of the process of socialization and performs the most important role. Along with these institutions suggestion, imitation, sympathy and other psychological process play their important role in this process. It is not an easy job to analyse the process of socialization. In respect of it, different sociologists have advanced their own theories. Given below are the main theories advanced in regard to Socialization :
(1) Theory of Durkheim, (2) Cooley’s theory, (3) Theory of Mead.
- Theory of Durkheim. Durkheim theory is known as the theory of Collective Representation’. He has tried to explain and analyse the process of socialization on the basis of collective representation. Before we go into the details of these theories, it will be worthwhile to have a clear idea about the collective representation. In almost all the societies, there are different beliefs, ideas, feelings and concepts, that are shared by almost all and every member of the society. These ideas, beliefs, feelings develop according to ‘social consciousness’ and social consciousness is the result of the individual consciousness, interactions and their consequences. Therefore, in a society, the concepts, beliefs ideas and feelings are not a property of certain individuals, but they represent the collective life. Durkheim has called it “collective representation.”
The process of socialization is very much influenced by these ‘collective representations’. This can be judged by the following effects:
These collective concepts, beliefs, and feelings are the property of almost all the individuals and the members of the society have a respect for them. They are also backed by sanctions that are known as “collective sanctions’. Consequently, they influence individual desires. wishes and feelings. Individuals are left with no option but to develop their individual behaviour according to these collective representations. The child gets influenced by these collective representations as he develops. The social traits that develop in him, are the results of these social sanctions or the collective representation. The parents, the teacher and the State etc. all are anxious to educate the child. Education is, therefore, the result of the social consciousness and this is guided by ‘collective representations’. The parents, the teachers and the State all press the child to get an education, and the result in that the education of the child is guided in a particular direction. Similarly, other social traits or the social qualities of the child also develop according to these ‘ collective representations’. This is in fact the process of socialization.
- Cooley’s theory. Cooley was another important sociologist who has advanced his own theory in regard to socialization. He has laid stress oncoming mass to the contact and the influence of other individuals on the child, in the process of socialization. He has held the view that human nature, habits of men are the results of the contact and the influence of other individuals. A child acquires these habits from others.
Every individual when comes in contact with others acquires certain experiences and consequently the habits. Cooley, therefore, held the view that unless the child or an individual comes in contact with other individuals, concepts, beliefs, ideas, habits and feelings, he is not able to have his own ideas and concepts. When he comes in contact with others, he tries to acquire habits and ideas. In the same manner, for example, if a person continues to hear good things about himself from others, this idea gets into his sub-conscious and then he really becomes hard working intelligent person. In other words, a man forms an opinion about himself from the judgement of others. That is why Cooley has said that the ideas and the judgement of others about an individual are his looking glass’ or ‘looking glass’ self. It is this looking glass self that is responsible for the development of beliefs, ideas, feelings, habits, etc., and consequently, the process of Socialization starts. From this it
Is evident that in the theory of Cooley, great importance has been laid he influence and the contact of other persons and individuals.’
- Theory of Mead. In the theory of Socialization put forward by Mead, ‘self-consciousness’ occupies an important place. He has used the view that unless a child or a person does not have consciousness about himself, he has no consciousness about the ideas, beliefs, feelings, and habits of others. Before we can have a clear-out less about the theory of Mead, it would be worthwhile to have a clear idea about self and its development.
Mead in this regard has advanced the view that since childhood, a person does not find any difference between himself and others. He, therefore, while playing with the toys, identifies them with himself and treats them as living beings and behaves with them as his parents. With the advance in the age and the experience, the child is able to discern between the behaviour of his parents and his behaviour towards the dolls and toys: thus, by and by the consciousness develops in the child, he comes to realise that neither he is like his parents nor
he is like the toys or the playthings. He is now able to realise that all these things have a separate existence and individual status. The child thus develops consciousness about himself and he is able to distinguish himself with others. He, according to child, his self consciousness determines his behaviour with others. By and by this habits also grow and the process of socialization takes its own course. .. From these theories, we come to the conclusions that the member of society plays an important role in the process of socialization. The pressures, influences and the ideas of the society do influence the personality of the individual and the process of socialization. At no stage of the development, the importance of the process of socialization can be diminished. The reality is that society is responsible for man and man is responsible for his socialization.
Hindrances to normal Socialization. Socialization is, in fact, a process of learning which enables a person to establish adjustment with the society in which he lives. No person, howsoever intelligent or ambitious he may be, cannot acquire proper status in the society unless he acquires socialization. This is an age of specialisation and a person 4 in spite of his best efforts are able to acquire only a degree of the potentialities of the culture of a society. Therefore, every person has
moose one of the avenues that are available to an individual in the city. This, of course, places a big hindrance in the field of socialization.
For example, a famous scientist rarely becomes a successful musician or a politician. Apart from this limitation certain other limitation also placed hindrances in the field of socialization. They are enumerated below:
- Deficient physical structure. If a person is physically defi sick or badly deformed, he is not able to acquire complete social,
- Imbalanced social structure. If the social structure of a system is such that it does not allow free development of the potential :: of all the groups of the people of the society, a hindrance is placed the process of socialization. This is very much trué of the capitalist social order. Today the ruling group controls several ways of life and also avenues of acquiring progress. Consequently, others are not able to acquire socialization.
- Cultural norms. Cultural norms, values and traditions are rigid in themselves. They place a big hindrance in the way of socialization, They are not prepared to allow new norms to grow and it has an adverse effect on the process of socialization.
- Mores, laws and old beliefs. Traditional beliefs, laws, and mores also place hindrance in the process of socialization. A group of persons that believes in traditions and superstitions is not able to adjust himself in a society based on scientific laws.
- Physical environment. If the physical environment of a particular society or group of people is poor, it does not allow others to grow in society. Generally in such a society, the standard of socialization is quite low.
Violence. Socialization aims at establishment organization in society. Selfish thinking and behaviour place a big hindrance on it. Unless society is free from violence and there is a sense of co-operation, it cannot develop properly.
What do you mean by Socialisation? Discuss the process and agencies of socialisation.
Ans. The human in fact comes into the world as biological organs with animal needs. He is gradually moulded into a social being. process of moulding is called socialization.
Socialization is a social process. Some definitions, form many, are the following:
(1) V. V. Akolkar – “The process of adoption by the individual of the conventional pattern of behaviour is described as this socialization
because it occurs on account of his integration with others and his exposure to the culture which operates through them.”
(2) E. A. Ross -“The development of we-feeling in association and
the growth in their capacity and will to act together is called socialization of the individual”
(3) Bogardus – It is “The process whereby persons learn to behave mendable together on behalf of human welfare and in so doing experience social self-control, social responsibility and balanced
In this way, socialization is the process whereby an individual learns to behave in accordance with social traditions and mores. The human child possesses a tendency towards imitation. The child develops according to the environment in which he lives. The individual tries to win the praise of the group in which he lives. Man is a social being. He so his own nature, tries to adopt the culture of society. Man becomes what he is by socialization and it is by virtue of this that he is believed to be superior to animals. Socialization brings balance to his personality because the social aspect of personality is also very important. Through socialization, the individual learns to control himself in the interest of society and realize his responsibility towards others. Socialization develops in him the community feeling and he learns to cooperate with others.