BA LLB sample question answer 1st year 1st semester
In this post you will read Determinants of Social Mobility.
Discuss the determinants of social mobility.
Ans. Determinants of Social Mobility
Social mobility is a multidimensional phenomenon. Directly indirectly, to a greater or lesser extent various factors contribute to social mobility in a society. After studying the mobility trends in 12
Countries, Fox and Miller (1965) concluded that the economic factors, (viz the level of economic development, gross national product), school enrollment, political stability, urbanization and achievement motivation are some of the most important factors contributing to mobility. Barber (1968) observes that in the Western societies the expanding opportunity structure and increasing importance of educational performance have resulted in the increased rate of upward social mobility. Lipset and Zetterberg (1967) have identified three main causes of social mobility as the supply of actors and statuses, interchange of multiple causes, Moore (1965) has stressed on a single cause in industrializing societies i.e. the resulting changes in the occupational structure.
In view of the above discussion one may conclude that social mobility has multiple cause. The various factors contributing to social mobility have both a universal and particular i.e. culture specific, dimensions. Now we will discuss some of the important of social
- Patterns of Stratification Two contrary system have been identified in the pattern of stratification i.e. the closed and the open system of stratification. Caste system of India is the best example of the closed stratification system. Contrary to it class system of the western societies is the example of open ranking system. In the former the status is ascribed and therefore not easily changeable while in the latter the status is achieved and hence changeable. In the caste system the status of the individual is determined by his birth and there are very few possibilities of its being changed. The movement is possible within the caste and not outside it. In such a system the chances for upward mobility are very limited. Contrary to it in the class system an individual can, many a times, move up or down in the ranking. In this system the status is achieved by an individual and it is not ascribed as the caste system. Thus, it can be said that the open system of stratification is conductive to social mobility.
- Industrialisation. It has been widely accepted that the industrialization, particularly at the initial stages, leads to a high degree of upward mobility. Industrialization creates a variety of new job opportunities. These jobs require both male, female unskilled, semiskilled and skilled personnels. Further an individual can shift from one job to another from factory to factory. The chances for vertical mobility are unlimited Contrary to it in the agricultural society the opportunities are very limited. In India industrialization has forced the
- migration of man power from agriculture to the industries. Further the jobs in the industries are to be filled according to the universal criteria viz. the skills and performance of the candidate. The employment and mobility in the industries is not related and constrained by the ascriptive factors like caste, religion etc.
- Urbanization. Urban society is characterized by a widely differentiated and open system or ranking. This has led to a two dimensional mobility. First, the high degree of vertical mobility within the urban society. Secondly, the migration of population from rural arcas to urban society. Secondly, the migration of population from rural areas to urban areas which effects the mobility pattern of the society in various ways. In the urban society the status of the individual is determined by his achievement and performance and this gives him an opportunity to move up in the social ranking. Further the urban philosophy of life which is more characterized by the various of materialism individualism, less spiritualism competition, etc. forces an individual to more and more upward in the social ranking.
- Development of the means of Transportation and Mass Communication. This reduces the distance of space as well as times thus increasing the opportunities for social mobility. An individual can know about job opportunity at a place far away from his residence. He can apply for that job through correspondence and can travel to that place for interview or joining it. The scope for job opportunities has widened to a great extent with the means of transpiration and communication and thus causing high rate of social mobility.
- Demographic Factors. (i) In the rural areas with the increasing population the agriculture resources become insufficient for full employment. This forces the people to move out of the village in search of the employment in individual and urban areas.
(ii) A low rate of population growth at the upper strata generates the upward mobility from the middle and lower strata. In view of it “The higher classes do not reproduce themselves and hence create demographic vacuum.” This vacuum is to be filed by the pocple from the middle or lower strata.
(iii) A large proportion of the new generation in the upper strata fails to maintain its status. Particularly in the class of professionals high degree of vertical mobility may always be observed.
(iv) Migration of the population to other countries also effects
social mobility. For example a large number of poeple from Punjab have gone abroad for better economic status. This has led to the migration of agricultural labourers from other states life eastern U.P.
(v) Migration of population from one place to another within the country also generates social mobility. For example, migration of population from rural to urban areas, from cities to metropolitan cities, widens the scope of job opportunities and results in the high degree of social mobility.
- Opportunity Structure of the Society. Opportunity structure of the society to a great extent determines the extent and nature of mobility. The role structure of the developed society is highly differentiated and gives multiple opportunities to an individual for upward mobility. Sometimes a peculiar change in the opportunity structure leads to mobility in the concerned group of the population. For example, in rural India the use of metel utensils has ousted the role of rural potter. Contrary to it the demand for industrial growth and better health has led to high ranking of the two professions i.e. the engineering and the medical profession respectively.
- Motivational Factors. It is te aspiration for a high status in the individual and the group which leads to upward social mobility. It has been noted that the level of aspiration is not the same among individuals and groups. It varies according to the sociocultural environment of the society. In the urban societies and open system the aspirations of the people will be higher than in the rural societies and closed systems. In Indian society individuals show less motivation for high status due to the closed caste system and religious spiritualism.
- Mechanization. Mechanization has effected the social mobility vertically in two ways. Firstly, it has replaced the use of man power at various occasion and thus forcing the people for changing their jobs. For example the mechanization of agriculture with the use of tractor and other implements of irrigation, has forced the agricultural labourer to move away toward industries in search of a job. On the other hand mechanization in the industries has created various job opportunities for semi skilled labourers.
- Consumption Pattern. The consumption pattern of the society also influences the degree of social mobility. It the consumption pattern is clearly visible for the different ranks the degree of upward mobility will be higher. For example in urban areas the signs of the middle uppermiddle and upper strata are more physical and observable. This a temptation for the lower ranking to achieve these status symbo moving upwardly. Contrary to it in rural areas the status symbo not very specific hence individuals are less status conscious.
- System of Transfer and Promotions. The system of tra and promotion in both private and Govt. bureaucratic organizatio influences the social mobility.
- Govt. policies. The government policies of every co directly or indirectly determine the pattern of social mobility example in India the government’s policy of reservation is also a mo factor contributing for the social mobility of the scheduled castes, tris and weaker section of the society.
- Mobility Leaders. Mobility leaders have also been found motivating their kinsmen to join them. For example the migrated people of Punjab motivate and help their native persons to move out and achieve a better job opportunity.
- Western System of Education. The Western system of education and the equality of educational opportunities have greatly contributed to both horizontal and vertical mobility. Education helps in achieving better occupations particularly. Education helps in achieving better occupations particularly professional job life Engineers, Doctors, Managers etc. It helps in achieving high economic status and social prestige.
In the above post we cover all useful points on social mobility.
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