BA LLB international relation theory
In the below post you will read BA LLB international relation theory
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Q.1. What do you mean by the New World Order? How is the United States trying to establish its hegemony through this concept?
Ans. After renouncing the policy of isolationism in the early days of the twentieth century, the U.S.A. always fought the wars for establishing its hegemony. It fought the First World War to put an end to all wars.
It fought the Second World War to make the world safe for democracy. It fought a war against Iraq to establish a New World Order made possible by the end of the cold war.
New World Order-People over the word, even the Americans, seemed utterly confused by president Bush’s rhetoric on this term. It was on January 16, 1991 in his speech,
announcing hostilities with Iraq that President Bush declared that an opportunity had come for building a new world order “where the rule of law governs the conduct of nations”,
and “in which a credible United Nations can use its peace-keeping role to fulfil the promise and the vision of the UN’s founders.”
Hegemonistic intentions of United States– But in the heart of its hearts, U.S.A. wants its hegemony. It wants to play as the world’s policemen.
“The Pentagon, while łaying down the Defence Planning Guidelines for 1994-99 said “Our first objective is to prevent the re-emergence of a new rival, either on the territory of the former Soviet Union or elsewhere.
This is a dominant consideration.. to prevent any hostile power from dominating a region whose resources would, under consolidated control, be sufficient to generate global power”
There are three additional aspects to this objective. First, the US must show the leadership necessary to establish and protect a new order that holds the promise of convincing potential competitors that they need not aspire to a greater role or pursue a more aggressive posture to protect their legitimate interests.
Second, in the non-defence areas, we must account sufficiently for the interests of the advanced industrial to discourage them from challenging our leadership or seeking to overturn the established political or economic order. Finally, we must maintain the mechanism for deterring potential competitors from even aspiring to a larger regional or global role.
The second objective is to address sources of regional conflict and instability in such a way as to promote increasing respect for international law limit international violence and encourage the spread of democratic forms of government and open economic systems.
We will retain the prominent responsibility for the redressing selectively those wrongs which threaten not only our interests, but those of our allies or friends, or which could seriously unsettled international relations.
Various types of US interests may be involved in such instances: açcess Vital raw materials, primarily Persian Gulf oil, a proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles; threats to US citizens from LCFrorism or regional or local conflict, and threats to US soviet from narcotics trafficking.
United Nations as an Instrument- For the realisation of these objectives it intends to use the United Nations as an instrument. It wants
UNO to act its instance. That is how in his capacity as a single player on the internátional stage, President Bush hijacked the United Nations He made it an instrument of his national interest.
It was made possible by the dramatic decline and fall of the Soviet Union which ceased to be an adversary. It could not afford to be an active player while there were political turmoil and the economic fiasco at home.
In addition to Soviet timidity, Chinese opportunism, West European disarray and ‘Third World embers of the Security Council facing an economic and political crisis, made it possible for the United States to dictate terms. Consequently the US. preferred to limit its diplomacy, within the Security Council.
the consensus in the Security Council over the resolution 678 authorizing all ‘necessary. means to free Kuwait was unprecedented but not Surprising.
U.S. efforts at establishing NWO-There is a widespread belief, and rightly too, that the USA fought the Gulf War to make the oil of the region safe for itself-not only right now but in the times to come to contain Germany and Japan, the economic giants, from dominating the world stage.
The USA has enough oil for itself beneath its own soil and also in the backyard-the Caribbean and South American countries. It is Germany and Japan which are solely dependent upon the Arab oil. So, the USA with its for off national interest, want control over the Gulf oil.
Not only that, the USA wants to contain India as well so as to checkmate its emergence as a regional power. India in the perception of the USA is highly constrained by ideological predilections and by the sentiments of its Muslim constituency in that it as has no room for accommodating American viewpoint.
That is why the Bush Administration once again revived the Super 301 threat against India in order to force India to accept US laws on International business and commerce.
That is how India stands nowhere in the new world order that President Bush envisages. Instead, it is Pakistan again which is expected to play a strategic role in the Gulf security structure.
The first official indication to this effect came from Assistant Secretary of Defence, Henry Rowen, who is a Congress hearing said, “Pakistan can also contribute importantly: to our interests in post-crisis security arrangements for the Gulf-Pakistan has long-standing military relations with all the Gulf States,”
In the draft of Defence Planning Guidance for the fiscal years 1994-99, outlined on February 18, 1992. The American Pentagon, the highest policy framing agency, said: “We should discourage Indian
Hegemonistic aspirations over the other States in South Asia and on the Indian Ocean. With regard to Pakistan, a constructive US-Pakistan military relationship will be an important element in our strategy to promote stable condition in South West Asia and Central Asia.
We should therefore endeavour to re-build our military relationship given an acceptable resolution of our nuclear concerns. We should work to have both countries, India and Pakistan, to adhere to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and to place their nuclear energy facilities under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards.”
It appears that Saudi Arabia and Egypt will play an important role in the proposed security arrangements while Syria, Iran and Pakistan will be given a part in
the military structure along with other members of Gulf Corporation Council Accordingly, Pakistan will be rearmed with high-tech weapons to play the allotted role. She will receive sophisticated weaponry, attack helicopters and missile system.
She will be provided with additional F-16 aircraft and many hundred MI-Al Abrams tanks. These are the highly sophisticated tanks with nuclear warhead capabilities and that at the same time can withstand nuclear and chemical attacks.
The USA is not complacent on China as well. It has singled out China as a major arms Vendor in the West Asia region and asked her to help prevent the arms race.
President Bush has declared that it would be tragic if a new arms race were to develop in West Asia. And, James Baker, the Secretary of State, told Congress that time had come to try to change the destructive pattern of military competition in the already over-militarised area.
“But as the rhetorics on arms control were still sounding. A campaign to promote arms sales abroad started”, said Xinhua, the official Chinese News Agency. It added that “political influence usually goes along with the armament shipment” and said, “after the Gulf War, the U.S. apparently thinks its leading role in the Gulf Area should not be challenged.”
U.S. Realisation-The U.S.A. realises and rightly too that New World Order of its conception needs co-operation from other countries as well. That is why the US sought India’s order.
US Secretary of State, James Baker’s request to the Foreign Secretary Muchkund Dubey was to all intents and purposes a manifestation of Washington’s irritation that since India became a member of the UN Security Council it has refused to be stream-rolled by the US-sponsored resolutions particularly with regard to Iraq.
It, however, needs to be given a due thought since the US draft
for a permanent ceasefire in Iraq is no less than the Treaty of Versailles which became responsible for the birth of Nazi Hilter. Two of its
Provisions go for beyond the Iraq situation. The first pertains to the elimination of weapons of mass destruction in possession of or under Vopment in Irağ-chemical, biological and nuclear.
The second relates to reparations to be paid by Iraq as war damages to the nations ch have a claim on Irag. Restitution is no doubt. allowed by international law but neither the USA in the case of Vietnam nor Israel n the case of Lebanon ever paid anything like that.
The reparations extracted from Germany after the Versailles Treaty led to high inflation and mass unemployment in Germany resulting in another World War. Iraq has already paid a heavy price by remaining under bomb rain for Over a month.
“So if President Bush means making all other nations fall in line, there is nothing new about this coveted new world order. He forgets that the new world order can not be made to order according to American specifications.
In fact, the new world order means a system in which all the nations co-operate willingly, on the basis of equality and fair and equitable return on their raw materials and products.
For the New Order to be enduring, it must be based on justice, Fairplay and harmonious relationship between the different segments of humanity. The human race cannot for long afford to remain divide into two segments- one consisting of developed ‘and affluent nations and the other composed of poor, non-developed.
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