In this article you will read about AGRARIAN SYSTEM
Explain the Land-Revenue system under Akbar?
Describe briefly the social and economic conditions of the people under the Mughals? What were the main components of the Mughal nobility? Describe their way of life.
Describe in brief the economic conditions of the common people, under the Mughals.
Describe the living conditions of the common people in the Mughal Empire.
Discuss the position of the Zamindars in India during the Mughal period.
Describe the position of trade and commerce in India in the 17th century.
What was the position of the traders during the period?
Describe the activities of the European trading companies during the Mughal period or in the 17th century.
Ans. Drawbacks in the Land-Revenue System before Akbar. There · Was no sound land-revenue system before Akbar. The land revenue was the main source of the Government Exchequer. But the system of
collecting it was completely disorganized and was in a chaotic form. 1) Most of the land was under the possession of big landlords and jagirdars. They themselves collected the land revenue and kept the
major portion with them and the rest they used to send to the Government Exchequer. In this way, the Government in those days incurred a heavy loss. (2) The Government land, which was called the Khalsa’ was quite meager and it was insufficient to meet the expenses of the state. So the Government had to face a lot of difficulties. (3) The condition of the farmers was also very pathetic. The big landlords and jagirdars took the last drop of their blood since the cultivators were directly under them. (4) Every cultivator did not know what type of land he had, what was its measurement, and what was the land revenue due from him and is in place of produce he desired to give cash hew did not know how much money he should pay. Under the old system, not only the Government and the cultivator suffered, but the people had also to suffer.
1. Land-Revenue Reforms of Akbar. Akbar’s greatness lies in the fact that he fully understood the revenue problem and brought many reforms in it. He made many changes from time to time and tried to arrive at the best system.
The Zabti System of Raja Todarmal. The land revenue system introduced by Akbar in most parts of the country is known as the Zabti system. The credit for introducing this system goes to Raja Todarmal who had done much useful work in this direction during the reign of Sher Shah Suri. When Akbar won Gujarat in 1573 A.D. the revenue system of that province was handed over to Todar Mal. Todar Mal made the revenue system of Gujarat efficient to this extent that he was promoted to the rank of Diwan-e-Ashraf i.e. the Chief Diwan in 1582 A.D. He was then assigned the job of reforming the revenue system of the whole of the country. Todar Mal introduced the revenue system of Gujarat in the whole of the country. Following are some of the main characteristics of this system :
(1) Measurement of the land. First of all, the whole land was measured into ‘bighas. For the right measurement of the land, old measures made of rope were replaced by the new measures made of bamboo pieces which were joined together with iron rings. So this Bamboo Jorib resulted in the correct and exact measurement.
(2) Distribution of Land according to its Produce. The land was then divided into four categories according to its produce. (i) The Polaj land produced two crops in a year; (ii) Parauti was left empty after one crop to regain its strength; (iii) the Chachar was left empty for 3
or 4 years after taking one crop and (iv) the Banjar land generally lay useless and was seldom brought into use.
(3) fixing the Government Share. Each type of the above-mentioned land was further divided into three parts. For example, take the Polaj land. Its best quality was graded number one, a less productive Polaj land was put in grade number two and the Polaj land with insignificant produce was graded number three. In the same way, all the above-mentioned types of lands were further divided into three categories. One-third of the total produce of the land was determined as the Government’s share.
(4) Arrangements for paying the Land Revenue in Cash or in Kind. Farmers were given the liberty to pay the revenue either in cash or in kind. Those farmers who wanted to pay the revenue in cash, the prices of produce during the last ten years were taken into account and the average was drawn. This’ average price was taken as the actual price of the produce for counting the revenue.
(5) Special Officers. For the determination of the land revenue and its collection a large number of officials like the Amil; the Bitichki, the Khazandar, the Qanungo and the Patwari were appointed. Corrupt officials were closely watched and farmers were given the liberty to deposit their revenue direct to the State Exchequer.
— Advantages of the Zabti System. With the introduction of the Zabti System by Akbar the Government, the farmers and the people all stood to gain from it. This system determined the income of the Government and it also became easy to maintain the accounts of income and expenditure. This system was for 10 years, so the Government now had not to face yearly problems. Now each farmer knew very clearly how much revenue he had to pay to the Government. These farmers were now saved from the excesses and tyrannies of the landlords and the jagirdars since they had now direct link with the Government. With the increase in production the prices came down and this helped the people a lot. In the
words of Dr. V.A. Smith, “In short, the system was an admirable one the principles were sound and the practical instructions to the
officials were all that could be desired.”
Other systems of the Land Revenue
Besides the Zabti system,
Akbar also introduced certain other system of land- revenue like Ghalla-Bakshi, Nasaq or Kankut. According to the ghalla – bakshi system the produce of the farmers were divided between the government and
the farmers in the ratio settled between them. After cutting the crops, they were bound in bundles and then these bundles were divided between the farmers and the Government. Sometimes the division took place even when the crops were standing in the fields. Not much is known about the Nasdaq system. Probably on the basis of the past assessments the farmers were made to pay the land revenue.
Ans. Social Conditions. During the Mughal period (1526-1707 A.D.) the social changes were not as significant as were the political, economic and cultural changes. However, the changes that took place in the Indian society during the medieval period are narrated below :
There is a dearth of material that could give us a detailed description of the social conditions during the medieval period. Only the accounts of European travelers are available which are not so detailed The society was divided into three categories on the basis of their occupations. The three categories differed entirely from one another. Whereas the people of the upper class frequently indulged in wine and women, the people belonging to the lower classes had to work very hard to earn their livelihood.
(1) The Upper Class. The nobles and the high ranking officers lived like princes or like the French nobility before the French Revolution. They led a very luxurious life. They commandes great respect in the society. The main aim of their life was enjoyment and nothing else. No doubt they had qualities like love of education, art and benevolent nature. But they had many weaknesses as well in their character such as too much indulgence in wine and women, false pride and lack of moral values, etc.
Abul Fazal writes in the Harem of Akbar there were about 5000 ladies and for their care there was a special officer.
(2) The Middle Class. The number of this class was less than those of the upper and lower classes. They led a simple life. Some of the merchants of the Western Ghats had amassed huge fortunes and they lived a comparatively comfortable life.
(3) The Lower Class. This class comprised attendants, artisans, peasants and labourers. Their means were very meagre. As a result
they were free from those vices which were linked with excessive money.
The life of the common people was very simple and they lacked the political awakening.
Thus, we come to know that there was social inequality among the Indian society in the medieval period.
(4) Social Evils. There were many social evils in the medieval Indian society. The condition of women was very critical. The Sati system and the purdah system were prevalent. Though emperors like Akbar tried to stop these practices yet no material success was attained. The child-marriage was also prevalent. There was little stress on the education of children. The practice of dowry also was in vogue and the nobles were polygamists. The caste system was as its height. Untouchability was the biggest evil. The life of the untouchables was like a hell. If we analyse the whole position we come to know that the medieval society was full of evils. It was very difficult for a common man to lead a normal life. .
No reformer came forward to raise his voice against these evils. No reform was also introduced at the government level. Those who tried in this direction could not succeed. All such evils were nothing less than a curse on the society.”
Economic Conditions. Many European historians come to our help in making available the material about the economic condition of India under the Mughals, besides Abul Fazal’s important and famous book ‘Ain-i-Akbari’.
(1) Agriculture. In the Mughal period, agriculture was the chief occupation of the people. Akbar tried to ameliorate the condition of the peasants by his revenue system or land settlement. Canals were dug, tanks constructed and the rivers were embanked in order to improve the means of irrigation. However, even the condition of peasantry could not improve to a great extent because, first, they continued the use of traditional (old) implements and secondly, they remained victims of the vagaries of nature constantly. Sometimes it rained excessively and at another time conditions of drought prevailed and thus their crops suffered a lot both ways. Another calamity to which they were subjected, off and on, was continuous warfare. Despite so many arrangements and checks, for the protection of their farms, the Government employees and officials harassed them so often. Agriculture entirely depended on the rainfall. Whenever, there was a drought, famines visited the country
without doubt, and the condition of the farmers further worsened. The
Mughal monarchs, of course, did provide relief to their afflicted subjects but even a large number of people were starved to death because the means of communication were not suitable and secondly the relief was inadequate as compared to the needs of the people.
According to Ain-i-Akbari’ the products of North India were wheat, rice, barley, maize, millets, grams, sugarcane, cotton, jute, indigo etc. Bengal and Bihar were noted for the production of rice, indigo, and sugarcane while the Deccan produced cotton and jawar. Tobacco too began to be produced in India in Jahangir’s reign.
(2) Industries. The Mughal rulers paid particular attention to the development of industries. India enjoyed-world fame for the textile industry particularly manufacturers of cotton cloth including the muslin of Dacca. Big factories of cotton textiles were spread over the whole of India, but Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, and Khandesh were special centers where the manufacture and production were the largest as these areas abounded in huge factories. According to Pelsaret, the whole of the region extending from Orisa to Eastern Bengal presented a sight of a vast textile factory in a continuous line. All the towns and villages of this region were engaged in this industry. Some other chief industries with which the Indian people were occupied, besides cotton textiles, were the manufacture of silken and woolen cloth, dyeing of different colors, printing, painting, manufacture of cutlery, wooden articles, leatherwork, and weapons for war and defense. In addition to these, India was noted for the manufacture of shawls and carpets. In this way, many kinds of industries had particularly developed in the Mughal period.
(3) Trade and Commerce. The internal and external trade of the country had highly developed. The internal trade was carried on by rivers and roads. India had established close commercial relations with foreign countries especially with Europe and Asia. This trade was carried on by both land and sea routes. Lahore and Multan were two chief centers of the trade connected on land routes. The merchandise was chiesly exchanged between Lahore and Kabul, and between Multan and Kashmir. The well known sea ports for sea-borne trade on the west coast were Surat, Baroch, Cambay, Bassein, Goa, Cochin, Calicut etc. and on the east coast were Nagapattam, Masaulipattam. Sunargaon, Chittagong etc. India exported to other countries both cotton and silken
textiles, spices, indigo, shawals etc. while sea imported in exchange from
other countries gold, silver, raw silk, diamonds, precious stones, ivory, Perfumery, medicinal drugs etc. The import-export duty was very little to the extent of 3 12% only and hence, the foreign trade flourished vigorously.
(4) Price of Goods. As compared with the modern times, the prices of goods in the Mughal period were very low but the income of a common man was surely very low at the same time. According to Abul Fazal, an ordinary laborer received as daily wages two Dams equivalent to five modern paise, and even the best workman was paid seven Dams (17 1/2 paise) per day. However there is nothing to wonder
at because articles of everyday use were very cheap too. As for example, – the rate per maund of the selling price of wheat was 12 Dams which
is equal to 30 paise, while milk was selling in those days at 25 Dams, that is 62 1/2 paise per maund. He further adds that one rupee could purchase four goats.
(5) Economic Deterioration of India after the Reign of Aurangzeb. During the last days of Aurangzeb’s reign the economic condition of India, as a matter of fact, began to become deplorable. The chief cause of it was that in all the four corners of the empire disturbances, conflicts and revolts had occurred which affected trade, agriculture and industries adversely and consequently the economic condition of the country began to deteriorate. After Aurangzeb’s death, the conditions went from bad to worse. Many wars of succession and other wars began to be fought, off and on, in the empire and revolts raised (their) ugly heads in different parts of the country. All these conditions further spoiled the economic condition of the country. On the other side, the Marathas started their invasions on many parts of North India. The shadow of all these was cast not only on the economic condition of the country but also they proved to be very destructive and ruinous for the Mughal empire. How beautifully Sir J.N. Sarkar depicted the condition of the country in the following words :
“In this way, a great economic trouble started. It not only did harm to the economic condition of the country, but the standard of craftsmanship (art) and civilization also began to fall and slowly and slowly the disappeared. In the 18th century, when disturbance and disorder in the country were the order of the day, these evils assumed still more disastrous form”. The fall in the standards of art, trade, agriculture, etc. brought the downfall of the Mughal empire too in their wake.
Ans. 1. Composition of the Mughal Nobility. In the Mughal period, the nobles were counted among the ruling and the upper class. They had special privileges. The Indian and foreign high class families were also included in this class. Most of the Mughal Chiefs had come from Turan, Khurasan, Tajakistan, Iran etc. The upper class comprised the Turks, Asghan and Indian Mussalmans. The Rajput Chiefs also formed a fairly large group. Either they belonged to the Rajput class or to some high Rajput ruling families. The Mughal Chiefs included some able foreigners like the Iranians and Turanians. These foreigners were assimilated into the Indian culture but they retained some of their own characteristics. This very factor was helpful to the Indian culture in maintaining both its richness and diversity. In the reign of Shah Jahan, the Marathas also joined this privileged upper class. The Hindus formed 24% of this class. Afterwards, the ratio increased upto 35%.
2. Standard of Living of the Mughal Chiefs. The Mughal Chiefs led a life of luxury and comfort. They drew big salaries. They spent lavishly. They imitated the Mughal Emperor in splendour. They lived in grand palaces surrounded by tree-groves and fountains. They had scores of servants, horses and elephants. They maintained big harems. They lavishly spent on eatables and drinks. Their daily diet included many delicacies. Fruit and ice were imported. Men and women were ornaments of different types. These nobles offered costly gifts to the Emperor twice a year. This class was generally under heavy debt because of too much spending on various items. up 3. Why did the Mughal Chiefs spend too much ? Some historians believe that the Mughal chiefs spent too much on splendour because after their death their property was confiscated by the Emperor. But some other do not agree with this view. They believe that the property of those chiefs was confiscated who owed heavily to the Government. The property of others was equally distributed among their sons. They spent too much on maintaining their standard of living. In those days there were not too many avenues where the money could be invested with rich dividends. Abul Fazal had given an advice to the nobles to invest the money in profitable industries.
4. Contribution of the Mughal Chiefs. Although the Mughal
Chiefs spent most of their earnings in leading a luxurious life yet they contributed a lot in many fields :
(i) Many of the chiefs took great interest in trade and commerce. Mir Jumla owned many naval fleets. Aurangzeb’s Chief Qazi was the owner of many business enterprises. Many queens and princes encouraged foreign trade.
! (ii) Many other classes of the society imitated the privileged classes, so there was a great demand for luxury goods which led to the development of the cottage industries.
(iii) These chiefs purchased many plots of land and laid out gardens and flower beds of many types.
(iv) The Mughal nobles patronized art and literature. Particularly the art of painting and literature developed under their patronage. Thus they contributed a lot to the development of the cultural heritage of India.
Ans. Economic conditions of the Common People under the Mughals. During the Mughal period, it was mainly the peasants, laborers, urban artisans, attendants, slaves and shopkeepers etc. who formed the bulk of the common people. Their life was quite hard as is clear from the following account :
A striking feature of the prevailing economic and social conditions during the Mughal Period was a glaring disparity between the lives of the ruling class and those of the common people. While the rich people led a very luxurious life, the common led a very hard life. The majority of the population in the villages were peasants who did not have their own plows and bullocks. They worked on the lands of the Zamindars or the upper castes and could eke out a base existence. There were certain other peasants who owned land. They had their own bullocks and plows. They paid land revenue at the customary rates. They led a somewhat better life than those who tilled the land of the Zamindars. As land was surplus the average of the holding was quite large. So long as a peasant paid the land revenue he was not dispossessed from his land. He could sell his land. His children inherited his land, as a matter of right after his death.
The life of the village artisans was no better. He was paid in kind
for his services. When there were famines, it was the peasants and the artisans who suffered the most.
The village-folk lived in mud houses with little furniture worth the name. They could hardly afford copper or bell-metal plates and utensils which were quite expensive. They mostly used earthen utensils made by the village potter.
Most of them walked bare-footed and were scantly clothes. For instance, Ralph Fitch, who came to India towards the end of the 16th century writes, “The people go naked save a little cloth-bound about their middle.” But while the people had less clothes and shoes to wear, they comparatively ate better as food-grains were abundant and cheaper. Moreover, they could keep cattle as there was no paucity of grazing lands. As such milk and milk-products must have added to their diet.
The poor sections of the village often migrated to towns for employment. There they worked as unskilled laborers or servants or porters in the army.
As in the village, the majority of the people in the cities belonged to poor sections of the society, such as the artisans the servants, the slaves, the soldiers and the petty shopkeepers. They got meagre wages. Bust as the food items were quite cheap so they had more or less a balanced diet but they could ill-afford clothes, sugar, etc.
Ans. The common people were comprised of the peasantry, labourers, urban artisans, attendants, slaves, soldiers, and small shopkeepers. Their life was very hard.
(1) Food and Dress. Rice, millets, and pulses were prominent among the cereals. In some parts of the country fish and meat were used. In the north wheat, coarse-grains, pulses, and vegetables were used more. During the day-time, the people fed themselves by parched grams, etc. Milk, ghee, butter were easily available. Wooden coal, wood, and cakes of dung were used as fuel. At the time of famine, people suffered many difficulties. The people didn’t have sufficient clothes. There was a paucity of clothes. According to Babur men wore a loin cloth (Langot) and the ladies a sari. The foreign travelers also agree with this view. According to them, the people remained usually naked. People did not wear shoes because of the high cost of leather.
(2) Housing. The people lived in mud houses in the villages. They
used earthen vessels. They did not have furniture except cols and coir mats.
(3) Entertainment. The people entertained themselves with dice, cards, kites, wrestling, and fairs.
(4) Economic Condition. As discussed above, the general condition of the people was not so good. There was inequality among the people in rural areas. There were Zamindars who owned too much of land and there were those who worked as laborers on that land. The rural artisans who led a miserable life. Many of them migrated to towns and worked as coolies, servants, and skilled artisans. Those who had their own land and bullocks led a somewhat better life.
In the towns also, the largest class was that of the poor. They included artisans, attendants, slaves, and petty shopkeepers. The attendants earned less than Rs. 2 per month. The infantry troopers and other common people got Rs. 3 per month as their pay.
Ans. From the writing of Abul Fazal and accounts of the contemporary historians, it is evident that the system of ownership of land and property is very old. Many laws were framed from time to time regarding proprietary rights. Usually the land belonged to the person who tilled it for the first time. In those days there were large tracts of land which were unclaimed and barren. Many dexterous people reclaimed such land and made it cultivable. In due course of time, these people settled there, and thus small villages came into being.
These people collected revenue and it became their dynastic right. “The area of their operation was called “Talluqa.” It was known as zamindars also. Generally, 5% to 10% of the total revenue went to the
zamindars. Sometimes this amounted to 25% also. It was a type of commission. A person could not be removed from land until he failed to pay the revenue.
The zamindars were under the bigger landlords who were sometimes called the rajas, but the Persian writers have termed them also as
zamindars. They had some internal freedom, therefore,
they were slightly higher than the zamindars.
Significance of the Zamindars. The zamindars kept their troops also. They lived in forts or fortresses which were the, sysmbols of their status. According to Abul Fazal, the combined armies of the zamindars
amounted to lakhs. Generally, the zamindars had a great influence on the peasants of their Talluqa. From an economic point of view, they were quite well off. With the passage of time, this class of zamindars had become sufficiently strong. No efficient ruler could afford to ignore
Standard of Living of the Zamindars. The small zamindars usually led a life like that of the peasants because of limited income. But the glory and splendor of big zamindars were not less than the ‘Rajas’ and the nobles. Most of the zamindars lived in villages and they belonged to the noble class.
Generally, the zamindars were good people and they shared the miseries and comforts of the peasants. But with the passage of time and distribution of the zamindars, they became tyrants. Many peasants lost their lands to the big zamindars. The peasants in order to save their land sometimes raised loans from the village bankers. In those days, land was the only source of prestige and livelihood of the peasants. Therefore, they had to save their land at any cost. The tyrant zamindars exploited the poor peasants and led a life of luxury and gaiety. The zamindars did not command any respect because of their cruel attitude towards the peasants.
Ans. Internal Trade during the Mughal Period. As there were link-roads spread all over Indią, so trade and commerce was flourishing in India during the Mughal period. Besides that, the traders traders used rivers for navigational purposes. If we see minutely all the big towns which were centres of trade and commerce, were situated on the banks of the rivers or the sea-shore. The Vaishyas, the Gujaratis and the Marwaris were the main trading communities. The wholesale traders were called the ‘Bohras’ and the retailers were called the ‘Baniks’ or traders. In the Deccan, the traders were called Chettis. In Rajasthan, the banjaras (roaming traders) carried trading goods from one place to another. The foreign Muslims were called Khurasani. The Sarrafs (or money-leaders) gave money on interest. They carried their money in the shape of ‘Hundis.’ There were some big traders in India who owned their own ships.
Virji Vohra and Malaya Chetti were prominent traders of Surat and Coromandal coast respectively.
Many big traders lived in Delhi, Agra, Rajasthan, Bengal etc. The Gujarati and Bengali traders were very rich.
Foreign Trade. The Indians had established trade relations with China, Burma, Ceylon, Persia and Central Asia. The foreign trade was conducted through the ports of Machhlipatnam, Cochin, Calicut, Goa, Surat, Cambay, Chittagaon, Sonargoan, etc. In the medieval age, the Indian trade witnessed many-fold development when the Portuguese, Dutch, French and the English traders entered the Indian market. Many Indian goods became popular in foreign markets.
(b) Exports. Many commodities such as cotton and silken cloth, spices, opium, indigo, black pepper, cloves etc. were exported from India. In the foreign markets these things had a great demand.
(c) Imports. Many things were imported to India from foreign countries such as army equipment, guns, gun-powder, horses of good breed etc. Besides that scents, crockery, cosmetics, velvet and silk were also imported.
Place of Traders in the Society and their Standard of Living.
The trading class was quite numerous in number. Big traders had their own ships and big palaces. When clad in rich clothes they rode their horses, their body-guards, with banners and weapons in their hands, marched ahead and after them. They commanded great respect in the society. They got built wells, ponds, temples and dharmshalas for the public welfare.
Small traders lived in houses which were generally shop-cum-slat type. They led a simple life. They did not make show of their riches, because they feared lest their property would be confiscated or snatched by the ruling class.
Causes of the Progress of Trade and Commerce in the 17th century :
There were many causes of the progress of trade and commerce in the 17th century, the chief among them are the following:
re was political unity, peace, and order in the country, moved about in the country without any fear of life and
(1) There was political unity, peace, and .order in the country. The traders moved about in the country without any fear of life and property.
(2)All facilities, concerning transportation, were available. The
traders could transport their goods from one place to another quite
(3) The taxes were uniform and there was no hindrance in selling a thing any where in the country.
(4) The Mughals introduced coins of pure silver which made the exchange of things quite easy.
(5) The officials got their salaries in cash, therefore they did not try to fleece the traders.
(6) Where the farmers sold their commodities, those places developed into small townships and market-centers, which the trades. could easily visit.
(7) The luxury-goods were also in great demand. This demand gave impetus to cottage industries and handicrafts. This thing also gave rise to many cities and towns.
Even foreign travelers bear testimony to this fact that in those. days there were cities like Lahore, Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, etc. which were bigger even than London and Paris. According to Ralph Fitch, “Agra and Fatehpur are two very great cities, either of them much greater than London and very populous.” According to Erskine, Lahore was a big and prosperous city which was a very great center of trade and every necessary and useful thing was easily available.” Similarly, in the words of Monserrate, Lahore was second to no other city in Europe and Asia.” All these towns and cities gave a great impetus to commerce and industries.
(8) When the English and the Dutch entered the Indian market the monopoly of the Portuguese ended and the Indian established direct contacts with many foreign countries. ;
Ans. The advent of the Europeans in India. When the English and the Dutch merchants came to India, the Portuguese sea-trade received a great set-back and their monopoly was broken. The Indian traders were happy with this state of affairs because the attitude of the Portuguese towards the Indian traders was not so good. Moreover, they exploited the Indians. Secondly, the Indian traders now established direct links with the European markets. By and by, there started a
Competition among the English, the French, and the Dutch traders for
capturing the Indian markets. they fortified their business centers and kept soldiers for their protection, Later on, these soldiers were used for capturing political power in India. The English ousted the Dutch, the Portuguese, and the French from the Indian markets. But the French were still powerful in the political field. During the 18th century, they had a serious struggle with the English. The latter succeeded in removing the French from the Indian field and consequently, the English trade regained supreme in the whole of India.
Import-Export by the Foreign Traders. The Portuguese traders were the first to deal in the trade of spices. They had opened their business houses with the permission of the local rulers on the Coromandal Coast and Masaulipatnam areas.
It was they who had started the trade of textile goods in the Coromandal area. The English too had to come to the East with the intention of promoting their trade. Because the Dutch had established their trade-in Java and Sumatra islands, therefore, the English were compelled to advance towards India. They, first of all, opened their business centers at Surat.
Soon the English monopolized the export of Indian textiles and indigo and the monopoly of the Portuguese came to an end. They were not confined to Goa, Daman, and Diu. The English set-up their business centers at Calcutta, Bombay, Surat, Agra, Coromandal Coast, Masaulipatnam, and Fort Saint David (Madras). Sugar and silk were exported from Orissa and Balasore. Indian textile was so much popular in Europe and its demand increased so much that the governments there put a ban on its import in 1701 A.D. Those who possessed Indian
the cloth was heavily fined but it hardly affected the export of Indian cloth to the European markets.
The Indian goods were exchanged for gold and silver. Some luxuries such as foreign liquor, gun-powder, crockery, horses, scent, and velvet were imported from abroad. The Indian trade increased with the
of the European traders in India and the Indian goods found their way into the foreign markets.
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