BA LLB 1st year history administration of shivaji sample model pratice question papers:In this article you will read about ADMINISTRATION OF SHIVAJI .Was Sher Shah Suri, the fore runner of Akbar? Who was Sambhuji ? How did he came into conflict with Aurangzeb ? What were the causes of his failure ? Give a brief account of the civil and military administration of Shivaji.
Answer. He was a great and successful ruler. He reformed his policies to benefit his people. We observe that Akbar, during his long period of rule, followed the policies of Sher Shah Suri with success. Sher Shah Suri for this reason is said to be the fore-runner of Akbar. Dr. Ashirwadi Lal compares him with Alauddin Khilji who was superior to Sher Shah Suri in administration and military achievements but lacked in constructive policies. Akbar, as a man and ruler, was superior to Sher Shah. We observe but casting a cursory look on the reign of Akbar that he developed and implemented the policies of Sher Shah and achieved great success. The achievements of Sher Shah are by
achievements of Sher Shah are briefly discussed below which evidently prove him the fore-runner of Akbar :
The Land : Akbar followed the policy of Sher Shah. Likewise he ordered to measure the land, divided them into three categories. and determined the land-revenue according to the practice Sher Shah introduced.
(2)The Military Organization : He raised a standing army under
his direct command registered the details of the identification of his : soldiers, and branded the horses. The practice of requirement, and the cash payment of salaries to the soldiers from the royal treasury were allowed to continue similar to the practice introduced by Sher Shah..
(3) The Currency : Sher Shah brought reforms in the currency system. He issued coins of various denominations and determined the ratio denominations between them. Each had a definite ‘weight and shape. We see, Akbar did not deviate from the policy. . (4) The Architecture : In the buildings constructed during his rule, we observe the Hindu and Muslim styles. Akbar developed this synthetic style of architecture.
(5) Welfare of the people : He .outdid his Muslim predecessors in doing good to the people – laid the roads, planted shady trees, dug wells, and did several other things. Akbar not only continued to follow Sher Shah in this respect but tried to abolish the practice of Sati and child-marriages.
(6) Religious tolerance : Sher Shah excelled Akbar in his effort to strike the concept of national unity in the grim impussibilities of diverse and conflicting religious faiths. He never treated his Hindu subjects curly and followed the policy of neutrality in matters of religion. However, to win battles he raised the slogan of Jehd. It is difficult to form the opinion that Sher Shah, consciously, tried to make India a secular nation by striking emotional unity between the followers of rival faiths. Dr. Ashirwadi Lal opines that Sher Shah did not comprehend the concept of an Indian-nation, so no such question arises. He continued to exact the Jizya tax on the Hindus and did not forbid the cow-slaughter.
In his field of religion, Sher Shah divorced religion of the state and paved the path for Akbar. Akbar caught the line, removed the distinction between the Hindus and the Muslims, and made efforts to bring them closer..
He was the most successful ruler of his period and undoubtedly, the fore-runner of Akbar who received direction from him, still he stands second to Akbar. being regards him the greatest of the Muslim. kings but Dr. Kanungo prefers the title of ‘great to Akbar. ..
Sher Shah’s descendants : Islam Shah, his son, ruled the empire for nine years. He continued the policies of his father and kept a watchful eye on the Afghan Sirdars. Still conspiracies were held during
After the death of Islam Shah, his minor son, Firoz, succeeded to the throne but his uncle murdered him and usurped the power and ruled under the title of Mohd. Adil Shah. He was ambitious and weak and entrusted all the state affairs to his Hindu Prime-minister. Hence other Sirdars stood in revolt against him. His cousin, Ibrahim Suri, captured Agra and Delhi and Adil Shah fled to Chunar. Sikandar Suri became independent in the Punjab. Humayun watched the deteriorating condition of the Sur empire and invaded India in 1555. He defeated Sikandar Suri at Sirhind and captured Agra and Delhi. , Important Achievements of Shivaji
We shall study, some of his important achievements before discussing his character.
(1) Setting of Hindu Padpadshahi : His greatest achievement is the selling of the Hindu padpadshahi. The Muslims heaped great cruelties on the Hindus under the Sultanate, desecrated many holy places and built tombs and mosques from the trouble of pulling down temples and holy places. The process of humiliating the Hindus continued during the Mughal era. Besides Akbar, all the emperors humiliated their Hindu subjects. Some Hindus exhibited their resentment but the Hindus, as a whole, never protested against the misbehaviour of their foreign rulers. The ruination of Vijaynagar empire, in the south, made them utterly disappointed of leading an independent, self-respecting dignisied life.
: Shivaji founded a Hindu state which later, extended its influence all over India. His followers made or unmade destinies of the later Mughals. The historians have tried to belittle his state naining it the Marathas state but, in face he founded the Hindu Padpadshahi. His empire represented the entire Hindus as he invited the brahmins from Kashi to crown him. He bestowed upon the Hindus their lost honour and prestige.
(2) United the Marathas : Prior to the emergence of the Marathas State the saints e.g. Tukaram, Ramdas, Eknath, and etc. made tremendous efforts to awaken the social and political leanings. Shivaji made the best use of this awakening removed disunity from the Marathas
them in an inimitable manner. The organized and and organises them in an inimitable disciplined Marathas exhibited their invincible power.
(3) Organized an efficient army : History bears testimony that the foreign armies were better organized than the native forces. The
Hindu force were untrained, unskilled, unorganized and armed with traditional weapons. Shivaji not only infused the army with an ideal but organized and provided it with the latest weapons also. He turned the Marathas into a formidable fighting machine. His soldiers were brave, hard working, and possessed an ideal character. Aurangzeb complimented his armies in the words-“I set ‘my forces against them and spent many years to quel them but, with the course of time, their striking power has increased.”
(4) Founded a large empire : Shivaji laid the foundation of a large empire. He started almost from nothing and succeeded in establishing a large Marathas empire. He raised a nation, from the simple folks, pregnant of high morals ideals; dedicated and devoted to their motherland. With their help he gradually raised a large empire and defeated his enemies as well as the Mughals several times.
(5) Best administrative system : Astha-pradhan was his best
contribution to the system of administration. The administration caused his followers to covert the Marathas empire into a formidable invincible power. The system was based on principles of general welfare and ability. Dr. Ishwari Prasad writes, “His system of administration was better than the Mughal administration in several areas.”
Various contemporary historians speak high of Shivaji’s character. He was one of the few Indians who shall ever present the present the ideal of a patriot to the succeeding Indian generations and who is still respected. Shivaji was born at a time when Hindus had greatly been degenerated and disappointed. Their idols and temples were being broken and their religion and culture were being insulted. They had no means to defend them. Having resigned to their fate, they agreed to serve the foreign rulers. Shivaji stood as a huge rock against the onslaught on the Hindus. He carved an empire owing to his tact, wisdom, and bravery and inspired the Hindus to lead an independent and respectable life. Jadunath Sarkar observes that the “Hindu-tree did not die out but appeared to be so owing to political suppression of centuries. That could again grow, flourish, and bloom.” Historian Sardesai argued that Shivaji dream of a Hindu empire was not limited to the Maharashtra but wanted to bring the whole of India within its fold. In fact, Shivaji was a great man and we read the following qualities in his character
(1)affection with the family: He had a sublime personal character,
loved his parents greatly. He respected his mother – Jeeja Bai, as a goddess and obeyed her. He also loved his wives, sons, and relatives. For the poor and the sad, his heart always moved. Dr. Ashirwadi Lai
rivastava writes, that Shivaji was an obedient son, a devoted husband, and a kind friend. He worshipped his mother, respected his father, and Loved his wives and children.
(2) The religious tolerance – Shivaji was a devout Hindu and struggled to raise them. He received the religious inspiration from his Guru Ramdas and therefore served the sadhus and the holy men. It is said that once he gave away his kingdom as a gift to Ramdas who, after accepting it, gave it to him to rule over it as his victory; so Shivaji never treated himself a ruler but a servant of the people. His Guru wore the saffron colored clothes which color he adopted for his flag.
He was a tolerant ruler. He always respected the Muslim saints their holy places, and the Quran and honoured the Muslim ladies like those of his family and never allowed his soldiers to misbehave with them. Historian, Khasi Khan, who was unfriendly with Shivaji, praises him on this count. He writes that he made a rule that his soldiers would not harm the mosques and the ladies, and pollute the Quran while looting a place. Whenever he received the holy Quran, he would gave it away to one of his Muslim followers. Similarly, when Hindu or Muslim ladies were found, he would return them to their guardians:
(3) Brave soldier : Shivaji was a brave and daring man. He exhibited great presence of mind and patience and bravery in difficult times. He imprinted his bravery on the kingdom of Bijapur and the Mughals by killing Afzal Khan and injuring Shayesta Khan in his camp He led a very difficult life and enjoyed the hardships.
(4) Efficient general : He was a successful general and defeated the great Mughal power many a time with his small army and founded an extensive empire. He treated his soldiers well, cared for their welfare
loved them but kept them within the limits of strict discipline. The enemies could not excėl him in diplomacy or tactics.
TE) Successful diplomat: Shivaji was a good diplomat and a great politician. He never let his enemies unite against him and was continuously at war with the Bijapur kingdom. He got his father, Shahji,freed from
the detention of Aurangzeb speaks volumes of his diplomacy.
(6) Ruler : He was a wise ruler. His administration reforms are ample proofs of his ability as a good ruler. He made the innovations i.e. Astha-pradhan and the reyatwari in place of the jagirdari system.
(7) The great organizer : Shivaji is remembered as one of the greatest organizers in the history. By dint of his remarkable powers, he gathered the scattered pieces of the Marathas and turned them into an organized formidable force. He founded a system of government which worked effectively in his absence when he was in Aurangzeb’s detention for ten months. His followers did not falter in their loyalty to him.
(8) Lover of knowledge : Like Akbar and Ranjit Singh, Shivaji was not a learned man, but he encouraged learning and patronised the scholars. A Persian Sanskrit dictionary was compiled during his time. The great, illustrious poet, Bhushan, was at his court.
Answer. Aurangzeb and Sambhuji. The history of the Deccan affairs during the reign of Aurangzeb devetails into that of the Marathas. Sambhuji was the eldest son of Shivaji. He was a brave soldier determined like his father to carry on the struggle against the Mughals following the death of Shivaji in 1680 A.D. He was a daring soldier like his father but he lacked his other virtues. The rebel Prince Akbar was Sambhuji’a guest. He had a Brahman adviser named Kavi Kulash who was quite worthless.
Sambhuji proved himself quite incompetent. His cruelly and violence bred a general discontent among his officers and local chiefs. He had to sace a series of rebellions and conspiracies against his life. He sell under the evil influence of his companion minister Kavi Kalsh and began lo sink more and more deeply in vice. He could not adopt a well thought out proramme against the Mughal menace. Instead of concentrating his strength against Aurangzeb, he frittered it away in fruitless campaigns against the Siddis and the Portuguese. He could not take advantage of the presence of Prince Akbar the rebel son of Aurangzeb. He remained in active when Aurangzeb was engaged in operations against Bijapur and Golkunda. That was the most appropriate time to strike against the Mughals. After the fall of the two kingdoms the Marathas were left exposed to the whole might of the Mughal army. Undoubtedly he fought the imperial face with great courage but was
surprised and captured by the Mughal officer in an unguarded moment of revelry and merry making.
Execution of Sambhuji. He was brought before Aurangzeb and publicly paraded and insured. He was ordered to be executed with terrible cruelty (1689). Aurangzeb made himself very unpopular big his religious policy of intolerance. His treatment of Sambhuji completely alienated the Marathas. From this time the fortunes of Aurangzeb and with them the empire, of the Mughal began to fall. In one of the wars against the Marathas in the closing years of his reign, Aurangzeb was crossing the Man river at midnight. Then there came a sudden flood. He stumbled and had his knee dislocated in trying to escape. He was compelled to return to Ahmad-nagar pursued by the Marathas. This was his journey’s end. He had for fifty years held the reins of the government without aid of any sort. He had no friends. He could not trust anyone sufficiently. His one luke warm affection seems to have been for his sister Roshanara. She sat his side guarding the great seal. He died on 3rd March 1707. His remains were carried to Daulatabad. Azam Shah carried the coffin for a short distance.
Answer. Shivaji Civil Administration. Shivaji was not merely a successful conqueror but also a great organiser and administrator. His government though autocratic was efficient as well as enlightened. It was purely Hindu in spirit. He took every possible step to organise by administration both civil and military on scientific 1-os.
1. Central Government. The king was the supreme head of the state and all authority was concentrated in his hands. He was assisted by a council of eight ministers known as the “Ashta Pradhan”. The chief terror (lit Mukhya Pradhan was called the Pebhwa). The other
departmental charges such as finance, correspondence
array and so forth. All the ministers except the foreign affairs, the array and so forth. All the minis
chief justice also held military commands besides Nyayadhisha or the chief justice also held military their civil duties –
was (Prime Minister) looked after the general (1) The Peshwas (Prime Minister) administration and the welfare of the people.
(the finance minister) checked all accounts of (2) The Amotya (the finance minister ) checked all accounts of income and expenditure.
(3) The Mantri preserved the daily record of the kings activities and the proceedings of his court.
(4) The Sachiva was in charge the correspondence.
(5) Samant (the foreign secretary) helped the king on matter relating to foreign states and on problems war and peace.
(6) The Senapati (the commander-in-chief) looked after the recruitment and organisation of the army.
(7) The Pandit Rao decided the religious cases and disbursed grants to religious and learned men…
(8) The Nyayadhisha was the highest judge in the state. The office of the minister was not beriditary but depended upon the personal qualities of a person.
2. Provincial Government. For convenience and efficiency the kingdom was divided into four provinces. East province was under the charge of a Subedar or Mamlatdar who was helped by a number of other officers. The provinces were further divided in Parganas and Parginas into villages. The administration of a village was run by its headman known as Patel. These were also Panchayats. These were some territories outside the jurisdiction of the provinces. They enjoyed some sort of Maratha protection for which they collected from these “Mughlať a tribute in the shape of Chauth or Sadeshmukhi.
3. Revenue Administration. Shivaji established an excellent revenue system based upon the principle laid down by Tadormal and Malik Ambar. The assessment was made after a careful survey and classification of the lands according to their quality and yield. The share, of the state was fixed at two sisths of the gross produce. He abolished the Jagir system because it encouraged the spirit of revolt. He discouraged Zamindari system and established direct connection with the cultivators. He did away with the old and corrupt revenue officers and appointed new officers. The revenue could be paid both mankind and cost. In times of famine loans were advanced to cultivators to buy seed and cattle etc. These loans were recovered by the government in easy installments according to the means of the person concerned. The accounts of the revenue collectors were carefully examined by the officers. As most of the land was not fertile being hilly the income of the government was increased by booty, chauth, Sadeshmukhi. Chauth was the 1/4 of the standard revenue. It was collected from those territories
which were not under his direct control. Sadeshmukhi was another tax
which was 1/10 of the standard revenue and was charged from the
4. Administration of Justice. The justice was administrated according to the ancient Hindu laws. In the villages the elders of the Panchayats settled most of the disputes. Criminal cases were heard by the Patel. The appeals of all the cases was heard by the Nyayadhisha who was the member of the Astha Pradhan or the council of ministers. He used administer justice in consultation with the king himself.
5. Military Administration. Shivaji organised his army on an ancient basis with a regular gradation of officers. Shivaji established a regular standing army and greatly improved its morale and discipline. •The recruitment was done after careful personal inspection. His army was mostly composed of cavalry and infantry. The Maratha cavalry was very formidable. It consisted of two classes – the borgis or troops equipped and maintained by the state and Sithdars who brought their own houses and equipment and received a stipulated amount from the state for meeting the expenses of services in the field. To prevent disruptive tendencies Shivaji abolished the system of payment jagirs and introduced cash payments for his soldiers. The soldiers were kept under strict discipline and regulations were drawn upto prevent them from doing anything which might degrade their morals. No female followers were allowed on the camp and a breach of this rule entailed capital punishment. The spoils of war especially the costly articles were to be handed over to the state by every soldier.
Maintenance of the Forts. The people were taught to regard the fort as their mother as indeed it was for thither the inhabitants of the surrounding villages resorted in time of invasions. There were 280 forts in his territory. Each fort was in charge of three officers of equal rank. They acted together and served as a check on one another.
Maratha Navy. Shivaji well realized the importance of having a navy. His enterprises in Konkan were often hampered by the hostility of the Abyssinian pirates (siddis) who were established at Janjire a small island to the
south of Bombay. The siddid were fine, seamen and
good fighter. Shivaji wanted to destroy their power and so built a considerable fleet manned by the sea forming people of the Malabar coast. Ten years of fighting with the siddis followed and the Maratha fleet on the whole gave a good account of itself.
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