Legal system notes: Explain the methods of studying social problems
Explain the methods of studying social problems.
Methods of Studying Social Problem
1. Historical Method. This method is used in studying societies civilizations, communities, and incidents in a time period or in a time sequence, It is used to study the origin, development, and transformation of social phenomena. It is very useful in determining the origin and evolution of a social problem. It was used by early sociologists.
2. Individual Life Study Method. In this method, a social problem is viewed as a whole from the perspective of individual life. It clarifies different aspects of a social problem. Therefore, it is a useful method of study.
3. Community Study Method. In this method, as is clear from the nomenclature, an attempt is made to understand communal and tribal problems the problems of particular communities, minority problems, labor problems, problems of wone, problems of backward classes, etc.
4. Ideal Type Analysis Method. Max Weber used this method in studying casual relationships. The ideal type is a concept that helps the investigator to measure similarities and dissimilarities in actual incidents Problems that involve analysis in the study are particularly studied by this method.
1. Social Survey. Social problems covering a large section of people in society are studied by survey method to determine the extent or quantity or number of persons involved. The survey method has been successfully used in studying social problems like crime, beggary, unemployment, poverty, overcrowding, etc. This method is particularly utilized to study or problems or a particular community such as labor problems, minority problems, problems of women, etc.
2. Statistical Method. This method is a useful instrument for comparing the past, present, and future states of a social problem. In its statistical techniques are used to give reliable and exact data concerning a social problem.
3. Sociometry. According to J.L. Moreno and Helen Hall Jennings sociometry is used to determine social distance and mutual relationships among individuals and groups. It finds out harmony and disharmony, attraction and repulsion, friendship and enmity among persons and groups.
Approaches to Studying Social Problem
1. Social Problem Approach. This social problem is studied through the survey method after dividing it into separate classes. J.L. Gillin has used this approach in his study of social problems.
2. Social Disorganization Approach. Elliott and Merrill have used this approach in which a particular social problem is discussed from the viewpoints of social disorganization.
3. Cultural Lag Approach. According to W.F Ogburn, the main cause of the social problems is a cultural lag in which while a culture evolves in a particular direction it lags behind in a different direction. This is due to the fact that different elements of a culture do not change or evolve in the identical speed or in the same direction and often some element lags behind others.
4. Community Study Approach. In this approach, as is clear by the nomenclature, a social problem is studied from the viewpoint of community studies. This approach has been particularly used in anthropological studies of tribes.
5. Value Structure Approach. This attempt is made to study how far conflict of values creates social problems and how far it hampers their remedies.