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Q. 4. Explain the concept of collective security. How is it different irom balance of power ?
Ans. Collective security : Collective security is commonly regarded as most effective of maintaining peace and deterring aggression. Collective security was supposed not only to be the basis of the league of nations basis also supposed to be the basis of the United Nations.
Meaning of Collective Security : Collective security is a ‘collective for security.’ The word security represents the goal, while the word collective‘ indicates the nature of the means employed. If any one nation is at nations with their combined strength will face the aggression. The basic principles of collective security is that an attack on one state will be regarded as an attack on all states. Security becomes the concern of them as if their own security were at stake. According to Mongenthau, “One for all and all for one is the watch word of collective security.” The problem of national security is not the individual problem of any nation but is a general threat to international peace and security. Aggression is a crime against humanity and the national enemy of every country. if it goes unpunished anywhere, it would encourage potential aggressors everywhere. Welfares remarks “If any aggressor anywhere is stopped or deterred by over whelming power, all other potential aggressors will understand the warning and cease to constitute a threat.” In, 1935 when Ethiopia was attacked by Italy, the representative from Haiti had said in the League of Nations. Great or small, strong or weak, near or far, white or colored, let us never forget that one day we may be sonme bodys Ethiopia. Palmer and Perkins have attempted a very simple definition of collective security and observe. “lt clearly implies collective measures for dealing with threat to peace.” George Schwarzenberger has defined collective security as “Maohincry for joint
action in order to prevent or counter any attack against an established international order.” According to Organski. “It will be the duly to oppose aggression whoever committed it for whatever reason.”, Under the system of collective sécurity peace is indivisible and an attack on one national constitutes a threat lo every nation everywhere. According to FH. Hartmann, “collective security is basically a mutual insurance plan.” Against aggression anywhere and everywhere Charles Scheleicher observes “In essence, collective security any member of the system engages in which all promise, in the event of another member to come to the latter’s assistance.”
The basic principle of collective security is that if an aggression take; place, it should be frustrated by an overwhelming force. It is therefore nccessary that all nations must stand unitedly against the aggressor, Just as any, nation can be a potential victim, any nation ís not taken into account. Every nation is considered to be innocent unless it proves itself to be guilty, irrespective of the fact what ts previous conduct had been. Collective security action is to be enforced against every nation, none will be exception to it. Defensive aggression will be directed against any and every nation which commits aggression. The principle of collective security is based upon the preponderance of power in the hands of the protectors of peace and order, and this is said to be the only basis of the success of the system. its chief merit lies in the act that the use of force wili be used only as a deterrent, that is, the use of force may not at all be needed a threat of collective action will be sufficient to deter the political aggressor.
Basic assumptions for conditions for the success of collective security : A collective security system to be effective and operate as a desire for the prevention of war, must fulfil certain assumptions. The system of collective security can only operate if these assumption are realized. These assumptions are as under :
(1) The system of collective security must be able to muster at all times such overwhelming strength against the potential aggression that the latter is never able to repeat the aggression. The collective force must be adequate to meet any situation.
(2) The nations which offer the combined strength to meet the threat of aggression under the collective security system must have identical conception of security. Collective security presuppose a unity of Outlook on the question of a breach of peace.
(3) The nationals must be willing to subordinate their political differences to the service of world community by whole heartedly supporting the collective action against the aggressor. The nations should bear in mind not their immediate interests but the remote interest of the world community, that is, the preservation of peace.
(4) In the event of any aggression there should be unanimity among the stales in determining the aggressor. What actually happens is that the agressor does not admit that ii has committed the aggression. The friends and sympathisers of the aggressor support it while that of the victim oppose it. Not only that there should be unanimity in identifying the aggression but it should be done with almost rapidly, so that the collective action is taken immediately and aggression halted without extending the area of damage.
(5) Collective security must not be directed against any specific state or group of states, but against aggression in general, that is, against any aggression anywhere.
(6) Collective security is incompatible with the traditional doctrine of naturally in war. Neutrality strikes at the very root of collective security.
(7) Collective security assumes that ail states must have a common interest in the defence of the states quo for which the system has been principally organised. Collective change in the international order. The status therefore, must identify their own national interest with the prevailing international order.
(8) A basic condition for the success of collective security system in procedure for peaceful for the success of collective acceptanced of the pacific means of settlement of International disputes.
Collective Security and the Balance of Power :
According to Claude, balance of power and collective security are the devices of the
management of power. Palmer and Perkins have called the theory of balance of power basic principle of international relations. Balance of power aims at such distribution of power among the states so that no single rate or group of balance of power serve the purpose of guaranteeing the independence of states and maintenance of peace.
A system of collective security is also regarded as a device of maintaining peace and security. It aims at providing security to all nations. Nations are bound to have differences and disputes but they will not be revolved by means of force. Collective security is the collective measure of all state against any aggression. An attack on one state will be regarded as an attack on all states and the same will be register by
the combined strength of all states. Collective security is not directed against like balance of power, collective security is also based upon the concept of power. In a collective security system the idea of balance ol power is inherent. As in the balance of power system the strength of the opponent is estimated, the collective security system also takes into consideration the strength of the aggressor. It is the basic assumption of collective security that their must be over whelming power against the potential aggressor. So is the case with the balance of power at preponderance of power is neccessary to check the aggression. In a sense, collective security is based upon the enlargement of the principle of balance of power.
Difference between Balance of Power and Collective Security:
(1) A system of collective security aims of preserving peace. T his comes into existence by way of a universal treaty entered upon among the nations against an abstract and unknown party. This treaty is not directed against nay specific nation, but against the aggressor whatsoever it may be.
A system of balance of power is also a device of maintaining peace. Balance at time war become necessary either for maintaining the balance or for achieving preponderant power. In a system of collective security However, the fact of war is not ruled not and but it is resorted to only where the aggression takes placce and before that. In a system of balance of power target is not abstract or unknown. It is the result of a counter-alliance directed against some specific nation or a group of nations.
(2) Balance of power is bascd upon the assumption of rival group While the basis of balance of power, conflict and rivalry, collective security is based upon the ideals of world-community and international cooperation Except the aggressor all the rest common interest and common objectives.
(3) Since balance of power is based upon group rivalry. There exists of atmosphere of fear and mistrust in the International system. Bat the basis of collective security is not mutual rivalry but, mutual cooperation, in which the ideas of common outlook, cooperation and trust are inherent.
(4) Balance of power is motivated by self-interest. Under a system of balance of power a nation can go to war only when it serves its interests. But in a system of collective security, nations motivated by no self-interest except the interest of peace and security.
(7) A proper functioning of collective security is possible. Only through some International organisation, as the League of Nations functioned in the past and the United Nations is functioning at present. It does not operate under the direction of any nation, but functions through some international organization. For a system of balance of power no such organisation in needed.
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