Q. 5. What is a Bibliography? What are its types? Explain how Bibliography can be prepared on a given topic.
Ans. The bibliography is the systematic study and description of books, The field acquired special importance in the 20th century because of the need for effective organization of the records of human communication in the face of the gargantuan growth of publishing activity and the need, especially in undeveloped countries, for informed access to the world’s scientific and technical information. It has been said that without a bibliography, the records of civilization would be unexplored chaos of miscellaneous contributions to knowledge, unorganized and inapplicable to human needs.
The word bibliography, in its literal sense, derived from the Greek bibliographia means the writing of books, and it was so defined in the 17th century. Since the 18th century, it has been used to denote the systematic description and history of books. It is now commonly used in two widely divergent, though basically connected senses :
(1) the listing of books, arranged according to some system (in this sense it is called enumerative, systematic, or descriptive bibliography); and
(2) the study of books as material objects; i.e., the study of the material of which books are made and the manner in which they are put together (in this sense commonly called critical bibliography). It is the function of bibliography to provide useful information for the student, in the one case supplying him with information about material for study, in the other, helping him to establish the place of a book (or a piece of writing) in an author’s production and its superiority and genuineness as a text for study.
The tasks of the compiler of the bibliography are
(1) to find out what books on a particular subject exist;
(2) to describe their item-by-item; and
(3) to assemble the resulting entries into useful arrangements for reference and study. The need for lists of this kind arises as soon as the number of books in any subject is too great to be easily remembered.
In 1545 a German-Swiss writer and naturalist, Conrad Gesner, who has been known as the father of bibliography, published his Bibliotheca Universalis(Universal Bibliography) of all Latin, Greek, and Hebrew writers, living and dead; this was followed three years later by a second volume, Pandectarumsive Partitionum universalism Libri XXI (“Twenty-one Books of Encyclopedia or Universal Divisions [of Knowledge]”), in which the entries, arranged alphabetically in the earlier volume are rearranged under 21 subject headings. Although Gesner was not the earliest descriptive bibliographer, his attempts at universality and classification earns him his fame.
Bibliographyand its World
The Institute International de Bibliographic, founded in 1895 in Brussels by Henry Lafontaine and Paul Otlet with the object of creating a universal bibliography of books and articles in periodicals, arranged according to a specially designed system of classification, the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), has assembled a card catalog of many millions of entries; but because of the immense bulk of the material and the growing cost of compilation, it is unlikely that it will ever reach the goal set by its founders. The hopes for universal bibliographies have been largely replaced by the published catalogs of such great comprehensive libraries as the British Museum (1961-67), the Bibliotheque Nationale (beginning in 1897), the Library of Congress, and most promising of all, the United States National Union Catalogue maintained in the Library of Congress and, in the early 1970s, in course of being printed in an estimated 625 volumes. Investigations were (the early 1970s) being made into the problems involved in programming and computerizing such catalogs, and if the complexities of programming multilanguage material can be solved, if the necessary financing can be found, if world cooperation in the production and standardization of catalog entries can be assured, it seems possible that the ideals of the Brussels Institute may yet to some extent be realized.
Types of Descriptive Bibliographies
Most countries now have national bibliographies, in a majority of cases published officially by the national library and based on copies of national publications deposited in accordance with provisions of copyright acts. Some notable exceptions are the United States and the Netherlands, whose national bibliographies are published commercially, and the United Kingdom, whose British National Bibliography is published by a council representing libraries, publishers, and booksellers.’ These national bibliographies aim at and attain, a high degree of completeness and promptitude. The British National Bibliography (beginning in 1950), for example, is published weekly and cumulated quarterly and annually; it is arranged in a classified order according to the decimal classification of the American librarian Melvil Dewey, with an alphabetical index of authors, titles, and subjects. The Bibliographie de la France (beginning in 1811), published weekly, is arranged in a classified order with an annual index of authors, titles, and subjects. The German Deutsche Bibliographie (beginning in 1947) is published weekly and provides both an author and catchword index.
The bibliography is of Great Help to the Students
Bibliographies of books published in particular countries are of great value to students. Outstanding examples of such bibliographies are Charles Evans, American Bibliography (1903-34), covering the period 1639-1799; A Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland and Ireland, and of English Books Printed Abroad, 1475-1640, compiled by A.W. Pollard and G.R. Redgrave (1926; revised and enlarged 2nd ed., 1976), and its continuation by D.G. Wing, Short-Title Catalogue… 1641-1700 (1945-51; revised 2nd ed., 2 vol., 1972-82).
Personal bibliographies may consist of no more than a simple list of an author’s works, as, for example, those attached to articles in the Dictionary of National Biography. However, they may be more elaborate; take, for instance, F.W. Ebisch and L.L. Schucking, A Shakespeare Bibliography (1931; supplement 1937); Michael Sadleir, Trollope: A Bibliography (1928); Bertha Coolidge Slade, Maria Edgeworth (1937). Personal bibliographies are sometimes based on private collections, as exemplified by A Stevenson Library (1951-64), based on the collection of Edwin J. Beinecke; T; J. Wise’s bibliographies, based on his own collections, of Tennyson, Swinburne, and others. A modification of personal bibliography consists of a narrative setting out an author’s works with a wide-ranging account of the circumstances surrounding the composition and publication of each work. An example of such a the bibliography is J.E. Norton, A Bibliography of the Works of Edward Gibbon (1940).
Compiling a Working Bibliography
As you find out information and opinions on your subject, you should keep track of sources that you may use for your paper. Documentation of such sources is called working bibliography. Your preliminary understanding provides the first title for the list. Other titles will come out when you consult reference works and the library central catalog and when you explore the Internet. If you read with awareness through the bibliography and notes of each more often than not you will discover additional important sources. Your working bibliography will repeatedly change during your research as you add new titles and eradicate those which are not useful and as you look into and emphasize some aspects of your subject in preference to others. The working bibliography will ultimately develop into the list of works cited that appears at the end of the research papers.
When you add sources to your working bibliographies, be sure to enter all the publication information needed for the work-cited list. The information to be recorded depends on the kind of source used. Following are typical examples of citations for a book, an article in a source. The sources your encounter might require more information. Some of the sources can be cited like :
(I) From a Book : (1) Author’s full name (last name first) (2) Full title (including any subtitle) (3) Edition (if the book is second or later edition) (4) Number of Volumes and the total Number of Volumes (if the book is multivolume work) (5) City of Publication (6) Shortened form of the Publisher’s name (7) Year of publication For Example : Vadra, Robert, The Fast movers. Rev. ed. (4) vols. Chaitnya: Chennai, 2005
(II) Article in a scholarly journal (1) Author’s name (2) Title of the article (3) Title of the journal (4) Volume number (5) Year of Publication (6) Inclusive page numbers of the articles (i.e., the number of the page on which the article begins, a hyphen, the number of the page on which the article ends). For Example : Kanpur, Roshan, “Myth of Good Dancers”. Journal on Dancers 78 (2005) 72-94
(III) Newspaper or Magazine Article For a newspaper or a magazine we need few appropriate things, which are as under: (1) Authors name (2) Title of the article (3) Title of the periodical (4) Date of publication (5) Inclusive page numbers of the article
For Example :
Lynd, Roberto, “The Break-Even Point”. Structure of Excellence in Language 17 Feb. 2004: B42-46
(IV) Internet Sources :
(1) Authors name
(2) Title of the document
(3) Title of the scholarly project, database, periodical, or professional or personal site.
(4) Name of the editor of the scholarly project or database.
(5) Date of electronic publication or last update.
(6) Name of the institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the site
(7) Date when you have accessed the source
(8) Network address, or URL
For Example :
Ruskin, Joseph T. “The Red Hand Toy”. The Olester Project.
Ed. Aristal Martin. Aug. 2003. Breakwell M. 28 Nov. 2005 HTTP : // www.olester.Berkwell,Edu/Primary/Toy Essays/Red hand-koi.html>
Above and beyond the data needed for the work-cited record, it is useful to add supplementary information to items in the working bibliography. For, example, if you originate a source from bibliographic work, documentation where you found the reference, in case you need to recheck. Always also make a note of the library call number, the network address (URL), and other recognizing information to establish each work.
The are various entries in a working bibliography contain not only all the facts needed for the final bibliography but also the information useful for research: the origin of the reference.
Whenever you consult a source, carefully verify the publication facts against your records-even if you have printed out or downloaded the data. And any missing information that you need for the work cited list, and correct any part of your records that does not match the data obtained from the work. Recording and verifying all the information about your sources when you first consult them will spare you many last-minute problems and frustrations.
Eventually, you will convert your working bibliography into a work-cited list. If your working bibliography is in a computer folder, amend the entries to remove unnecessary information, and organize them alphabetically by the author. When you have completed the final draft of your paper, remove the edited bibliography file to the end of the file containing the paper.
The most important question that often props in our mind that how to evaluate sources which is one of the most complicated works.
Researchers need to evaluate the quality of any work before using and citing it. Students writing their first research papers often find it difficult to evaluate sources. Not all sources are equally reliable or of
equal quality. In reading and evaluating potential sources, you should not assume that something is truthful or trustworthy just because it appears in print or on the Internet. Some material may be based on incorrect or outdated information, and the author’s knowledge or view or view of the subject may be too limited. Weigh what you read against your own knowledge and intelligence as well as against other treatments of the subject.
Authorship and Authority
When we consult a printed book or article, make sure that the author of the document or the person or group responsible for publication or site is identified. Publication often indicates an author’s credentials in the field by including relevant biographical information or link to a home page. Take note too of the entire work or site even if you are interested only in a particular document within it. In a journal or a website, look for a statement of missions or purpose as well as for evidence that the document underwent a consultant review.
Just as the name of the publisher is normally evident in print publications, the name of the sponsoring organizations of an Internet site should be given, preferably with access to information about the
organization. There is no guarantee, of course, that the material form says an Edu site is always reliable; such a site probably includes unsupervised personal pages as well as scholarly projects.
Nonetheless, knowing the organization involved might help you evaluate potential usefulness. For instance, many sites enduing in com offer helpful information, but some are no more than advertisements, such as a book company’s lavish praise for the book that it publishes.
If you are evaluating scholarly material, check to see that the work sources that are indicated, so that its information can be verified the sources probably appear in the lists of the work cited the titles in the list might also tell you something about the breadth of the author’s knowledge of the subject about any possible bias. Some of the sites also offer you the email address for further information.
Q. 6. What is lexicography?
What are the problems a lexicographer faces while compiling a dictionary?
How many kinds of dictionaries are possible?
What is the difference between a dictionary and a thesaurus?
What kind of information is supplied by an ideal dictionary? Describe it linguistically.
Point out the difference between a linguistic dictionary and an encyclopedic dictionary.
Ans. Lexicography is the science of dictionary-making. The dictionary has traditionally been the only source of information on language for the majority of people. In it, they expect to find how a word is spelled, how it may be hyphenated, what its syllables are, how it is pronounced, what its various forms are, what its meanings are, and what its origin and history are. They also expect to find whether a word is technical or general, whether it can be used in polite company or not, and even whether someone who is called by a certain word, is justified in feeling offended. They want unfamiliar objects illustrated and particular places pinpointed on maps, they want biographical information, geographical, demographic, and political data abbreviations, symbols, synonyms, usage notes – in short, people expect to find condensed between the covers of a dictionary the knowledge of the world as reflected in their language. Above all, they demand that this knowledge be accurate and up to date. Indeed, why not? The dictionary is often the only reference book of any kind that many people ever own. Linguistically, a dictionary gives a great deal of phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic information about a language. A dictionary is the product of specialists, linguists, and highly trained editors who are devoted to doing researching language collecting information, and interpreting it, and presenting it in an understandable form. (communication skills)
Contents of a Dictionary
Bloomfield describes the lexicon as an appendix of grammar and a list of basic irregularities. The reference and semantic (situational) function that can be stated of a word must be dealt with in the dictionary entry. Each word’s semantic function or meaning must be described separately. Dictionary-making presupposes knowledge of grammar and phonology. The dictionary entry dealing with each word must assign it to its grammatical class and any subclass and must transcribe, it, unambiguously represent its pronunciation, which is not necessarily done by its orthographic spelling, though in a dictionary of an unwritten language the transcription alone will constitute the word as entered in
the dictionary. In particular, a dictionary should specify clearly the part of speech, the grammatical class, of a word. In many cases, such a class assignment is all that the dictionary needs to do so far as the grammatical level is concerned; the rest of the grammatical information about it may be found in the appropriate parts of the grammatical description. But ‘irregular forms’ for example of the verb go (went, gone) must also be stated with each word. Dictionaries like The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English give the irregular forms of the word just after mentioning the part of speech.(communication skills)
Information Contained in Dictionaries
Dictionaries may be monolingual or bilingual or polylingual. They should have information in historical, comparative, and descriptive fields. They should thus give information about the phonemic, the morphemic, and the grammatical structure of the word besides its grammatical modifications, syntactic habits, and meaning. A usual dictionary entry may contain the following information about a word :
(1) Spelling (Graphics)
(2) Pronunciation (Phonology)
(3) Part of Speech (Syntax)
(4) Inflection (Morphology)
(5) Etymology (Comparative Historical Morphemics)
(6) Present Meaning or Meanings (Synchronic Semantics)
(7) Older Meanings (Historical or Diachronic Semantics)
(8) Usage Labels (Dialectology/Sociolinguistics)
(9) Derivative Words (Morphology)
(10) Synonyms (Comparative Semantics)
(11) Antonyms (Semantics)
Dictionaries are likely to use all three kinds of meaning :
(1) They may define a word by synonyms, or longer expressions may attempt to suggest the idea or concept, or feeling which is associated with a word,
(2) They may use other words, descriptions, or even pictures and diagrams, that point out the referent; that is, referential meaning.
(3) They may give many illustrative quotations, which are a way of at least sketching the distributional meaning.
An Ideal Frame of A Dictionary
The chief purpose of a dictionary, nevertheless, is to give meaning. In linguistics, by and large, three meanings are accepted :
(1) Notional Meaning: Ideas, concepts, images, and feelings.
(2) Referential Meaning: Things, objects, sense denoted by words.
(3) Contextual, systematic, or distributional meaning: “The meaning of a word can also be defined as all the positions it fills in the system of the language of which it is a part.”
Main Types of English Dictionaries
Difference between Dictionaries and Encyclopaedia
The dictionaries may be roughly divided into two groups – encyclopedic and linguistic. Linguistic dictionaries are word-books, where the subject matter is lexical units and their linguistic properties are pronunciation, meaning, peculiarities of use, etc. The encyclopedic dictionaries (better known as encyclopedias) are thing-books, that give information about the extra-linguistic world; they deal with concepts (objects and phenomena), and their relations to other objects and phenomena, etc.
It follows that the encyclopedic dictionaries will never enter items like father, go, that, be, if, black, but only those of designative characters, such as names for substances, diseases, plants and animals, institutions, terms of science, some important events in history, and also geographical and biographical terms.
Although some of the items included in encyclopedic and linguistic dictionaries coincide, such as the names of some diseases, the information presented in them is altogether different. The former gives much more extensive information on these subjects. For example, the entry influenza in a linguistic dictionary presents the word’s spelling and pronunciation, grammar characteristics, synonyms, etc. In an encyclopedia, the entry influenza discloses the causes, symptoms, characteristics, and varieties of the disease, various treatments of and remedies for it, ways of infection, etc.
Classification of Linguistic Dictionaries
A linguistic dictionary, thus, is a book of words in a language, usually listed alphabetically, with definitions, pronunciations, etymologies, and other linguistic information, and often with their equivalents in another language (or other languages).
Linguistic dictionaries may be divided into different categories by different criteria. According to the nature of their word list, we may speak about general dictionaries and restricted dictionaries. The former contains lexical units in ordinary use with this or that proportion of items from various spheres of life, while the latter make their choice only from a certain part of the word-stock, the restriction is based on any principle determined by the compiler. To restricted dictionaries belong terminological, phraseological, dialectal word-books, dictionaries of new words, of foreign words, of slangs, of abbreviations, of synonyms and antonyms, etc.
All types of dictionaries, save the translation dictionaries, may be monolingual, i.e., the information about the items entered may be given in the same language or in another one. Out of the great abundance of linguistic dictionaries of the English language, a large group is made up of the so-called explanatory dictionaries, big and small, compiled, in English-speaking countries. These dictionaries provide information on aspects of the lexical units entered: graphical, phonetical, grammatical, semantic, stylistic, etymological, etc. Then there are usage dictionaries which make it their business to pass judgment on usage problems of all kinds, on what is right or wrong usage. They provide much various information on such usage problems as, the difference in meaning between words like comedy, farce and burlesque, illusion and delusion, formality and formalism, the proper pronunciation of some difficult words, the plural forms of the uncommon and difficult words, and the meanings of unfamiliar foreign and archaic words. They also handle neologisms, archaisms, colloquial and slang words.
Then there are dictionaries of word frequency: they contain the lists of words considered suitable as a basis for teaching English as a foreign language, the so-called basic vocabulary. Such are, e.g., the E. Thorndike dictionaries and M. West’s General Service List.(communication skills pdf)
Reverse Dictionary is a list of words in which the entry words are arranged in alphabetical order starting with their final letters. The original aim of such dictionaries was to indicate words that form rhymes, e.g.,
John Walker’s Rhyming Dictionary of English Language.
Pronouncing dictionaries record a contemporary pronunciation. As compared with the phonetic characteristics of words given by other dictionaries, the information provided by pronouncing dictionaries is much more detailed; they indicate variant pronunciation. In the U.K. these pronouncing dictionaries of English are written by Danial Jones and Gimson and are so known by their names.
Etymological dictionaries trace present-day words to the oldest forms available, establish their primary meanings and give the parent form reconstructed by means of the comparative-historical method. In the case of borrowings, they point out the immediate source of borrowing, its origin, and parallel forms in cognate languages. The most popular is the famous Etymological English Dictionary by W. W. Skeat and another is the Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology edited by C. T. Onions.
Ideographic dictionaries designed for English-speaking writers, orators, or translators seeking to express their ideas adequately contain words grouped by the concepts expressed. The world-famous ideographic dictionary of English is P. M. Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases.
Some Basic Problems of Dictionary-Compiling
The most important problems the lexicographer’s faces are :
(1) the selection of items for inclusion and their arrangement,
(2) the setting of the entries,
(3) the selection, and arrangement of the definition of meanings,
(4) the illustrative examples to be supplied,
(5) the definition of meanings,
(6) illustrative material, and
(7) supplementary material.
There are no ready-made, set solutions to these problems. The choice among the possible solutions depends upon the type of which the dictionary will belong, the aim the compilers pursue, the prospective user of the dictionary, the linguistic conceptions of the dictionary-maker, and so on.
According to Halliday, dictionaries, whose purpose is to describe lexical items remain in general subservient to the tyranny of grammar. They tend to conflate the categories of ‘lexical item’ and ‘(grammatical) word and this determines their view of what is and what is not a lexical item; the decision is based on word class distinctions, which are purely grammatical and irrelevant to lexis; e.g., turn off’ is entered under ‘turn’ simply because both are verb; so also put up with’ under put; although
the two are, as Roget’s Thesaurus recognized a hundred years ago, quite distinct lexical items. On the other hand, to cite the Oxford Shorter Dictionary, cut as a verb is presented as a different item from the cut as a noun because of grammatical differences, although both cuts are lexically the same items.
As a result of large-scale current research projects, says Halliday, on the nature and operation of lexical items it will be possible to identify these with much greater accuracy and objectivity. There will probably
no longer be any need to invoke grammatical criteria for identifying the item to be entered in the dictionary. It will be profitable to blend the two traditional vehicles of the lexical statement, the dictionary, and the thesaurus, into one. Roget’s Thesaurus, with its brilliant intuitive identification of lexical items and their grouping into lexical sets, shows the advantages of the thesaurus as a method of arranging the order of items, instead of being a mere indexing device as in a dictionary. In many cases, it makes the definition unnecessary. At the same time, the dictionary citation gives essential information about formal patterns in lexis: the citation is a statemént of high probability collocation. A Thesaurus concentrates only on meaning; it is simply a collection of words and phrases; it does not touch upon the linguistic levels of words; it glosses words and includes their synonyms and antonyms. A Dictionary has a different purpose; it deals with almost all the linguistic levels of words. A lexical description combining the best features of thesaurus and dictionary would be an invaluable aid to the student.