Table of Contents
BA LLB Very short answer type question
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Q. 1. Give the definition of ‘Caste’?
Ans. In India, the caste system is a special type of social stratification found
mostly both in the ancient and modern periods. There are a number of definitions of
caste which points to its complex and intricate structure. They are:
(1) Green: " Caste is a system of stratification in which mobility, up and down the
status ladder, at least ideally may not occur."
Maclver & Page: " When the status is wholly pre-determined so that men are born to
their lot without any hope of changing it, then class takes the extreme form of
Q. 2. Write down any five features of the caste system in India?
Ans. (1) Caste is innate and by birth. Every member of Hindu Society is not only
born into a family but also into a caste. One cannot change one's caste. A Hindu
who is born into a caste lives with it and dies in it, caste is a social inheritance.
(2) Caste is rigid and immovable. The caste system is absolutely rigid as far as
its outlook is concerned, It is also the basis of Social stratification, hence " the
mobility up and down the status ladder, at least ideally may not occur."
(3) Caste is endogamous. Hindu Society enjoins its members to marry within
their caste or subsect. No intercaste marriage is approved.
(4) Each caste is dependent on other castes of the village level. Their
dependence is not only economic but also social, cultural, and religious.
(5) Each caste has its own culture that is autonomous to some extent.
Q. 3. What do you understand by the concept of the Varna system in India?
Ans. The term ' Varna' literally means color. Originally it has been used to refer
the distinction between Aryan (Gaura Varna) and Dasa (Shyam Varna). The
word ‘Varna' is evolved from the Sanskrit root ‘vri' meaning choice. In this sense,
varna means anything chosen by an individual according to his choice.
Varna system is as old as the arrival of the Arya culture.
According to Mandelbaum, " The origin story of varna, is first noted in the earliest
scripture, the Rigveda (in Purusha-Sukta). It states that the four varnas came into
being from the body of the primeval man. From his mouth issued the Brahmins,
who became priests and scholars. From his arms came the Kshatriyas, warriors, and rulers, from his thighs, came the Vaishyas, tradesmen, and from his feet rose
the Shudras, Cultivators."
Manu Smiriti also explained the similar origin of Varnas.
Q. 4. Briefly explain the demerits of the Caste System in India?
Ans. The caste system has given rise to several evils. They are:
(1) The caste system leads to untouchability. lt is the hateful expression of caste.
The caste system is like a bad coin.
(2) The rigid caste system led to social immobility and occupational mobility. It
deprives him of doing a job of his choice.
(3) The caste system often results in putting a man in the wrong occupation. The
caste in which one is born always decides one's position in life or his occupation.
The caste has given an aristocracy to birth, not of merit.
(4) The caste system is always an obstacle to national unity.
(5) The caste system is a great obstacle to the social and economic progress of
Q.5. What do you understand by the word 'Jajmani System' in India? Explain it?
Ans. Wiser says, “Jajmani system is an exchange of services and obligations
between different castes."
As per Wiser, "Jajmani system in the service relationship reveals that the priest,
accountant, goldsmith, vegetable grower, etc. are the jajmani of other castes.
Each of these castes has a form of service capacity and services to others. Each
in turn is a master and a servant.
Oscar Lewis says, " Under this system (Jajmani System) each caste group within
a village expected to give certain standardized services to the families of other
castes. A Khati (carpenter) repairs tools, a nai (barber) cuts hair, but they do not
necessarily perform these services for everyone and each man works for a
particular family or a group of families with which he has hereditary ties."
Similarly M.S. Reddy observes, " These service relations which are governed by
hereditary tenure are called Jajman-praja relations."
Q. 6. What are the characteristics exists in jajmani system?
Ans. (1).The.relationship between jajman and praja or kamins (or pardicals or
charkaws or halyas, etc.)
(2) Jajmani system is a hereditary relationship in the sense that the Son inherits
the occupation or duty from his father.
(3) The jajmani system provides protection to the hereditary occupation.
(4) In Jajmani system payment for services rendered is made in grains and other
(5). By jajmani system, the farmers were assured of the services while the pajana
were secured of their livelihood.
(6) Jajmani system provides relief to the jajmans as well as the kamins, it gives
them peace and contentment, there is a feeling of Security in the Society.
Q.7. What are the Merits and demerits of jajmani system in India?
Ans. Merits of Jajmani System
(1) There is job security as employment is hereditary.
(2) There is economic security to each member of kamins.
(3) There is the security of services to jajman.
(4) There is a close personal relationship between jajman and Kamins.
Demerits of Jajmani System
(1) The Jajmani system created distinction and discrimination between members
of various occupations and castes.
(2) It spread the feeling of superiority among the jajmans.
(3) It is supported by the caste system.
(4) There is immobility among occupations.
(5) There is the exploitation of jajman.
Q.8. Jajmani-system slowly broke down from Indian villages. What reasons
behind it, explain?
Ans. Jazmin, the system slowly broke down and evaporated Indian villages. The
reasons for this are:
(1) Effects of transport and communication which helped for migration.
(2) Introduction of the money economy and the payments in money instead of in-kind
with the introduction of the price system.
(3) Social reform movement and religious reform movements.
(4) Changes in occupations and also the introduction of cash crops.
(5) Change in economic conditions due to industrialization of production.
(6) Rapid growth of large towns and spread of education, urban contacts.
(7) Changes in land tenure laws.
Q.9.Give the meaning and definitions of Class’?
Ans. In developed societies, people classify one another into categories and
rank from higher to lower. The process of ranking such categories is called social
stratification and the resulting set of ranked categories is called the stratification
structure themselves by analogy with the different layers are called "' Strata' and
they are called as ' classes'.
Definitions of Social Class
Maclver and Page: A social class is a portion of community marked off from the
rest of social status."
Ginsberg: " A class is a group of individuals who through common descent,
the similarity of occupation, wealth, and education have come to have a similar mode of
life, a similar stock of those ideas, feelings, and attitudes, and forms of behavior
and who on any or all of these grounds meet one another on equal terms as
belonging to one group."
Q. 10. Briefly explain the division of labor in the Varna System?
Ans. The aim of the four varna system in India was a division of labor, i.e.,
Brahmins to teach, Kshatriyas to govern, Vaishyas to do business, and Sudras to
perform physical labor and provide services to upper varnas. According to
Bhagavad Gita, Varna system find its basis in the inherent qualities and mental
tendencies of the individuals, i.e., Satvika, i.e. Brahmins-Satrika-rajasika, i.e.
Kshatriya; Rajasika-Tamasika i.e. Vaishya and Tamasa i.e. Shudras.
Dr. Bagwan Das has divided labor under the Indian Varna System in the
(1) Teacher class
(2) Governing class
(3) Business class
(4) Physical labor class.
These are respectively the Brahmans, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas and the
Q.11.What are the basic differences between Varna and Caste? Explain briefly.
Ans. Varna and Caste though contused to be one are absolutely different from
(1) Varna is assigned according to one's capabilities of action and mental
tendencies, whereas caste is acquired by birth.
(2) Varna system is flexible, while the caste system is rigid.
(3) Varnas are four in number but castes are many.
(4) In the Varna system, there were no restrictions as regards particular occupations
for persons belonging to particular varna. But in the caste system occupations
have been fixed for particular castes.
(5) Varna system is of ancient times, while the caste system is of the modern period.
(6) Varna refers to racial differences, but caste indicates birth and descent.
Q. 12. Discuss briefly the functions of the caste system from an Indian perspective?
Ans. The caste system is found to offer the following functions to its members:
(1) The caste system has provided every individual with a fixed social
(2) Caste system has created the spirit of co-operation and follow-feeling among
members of the same caste.
(3) The caste system has preserved the racial purity of the higher castes by
forbidding indiscriminate inter-caste marriages.
(4) Caste system provides for all functions necessary to social life: " Functions
from education to scavenging, from the government to domestic. Service of the most
menial kind and makes this provision under the sanction of religion, the belief
(5) Caste-system has separated the ' social life from political life and has
maintained its independence from political influences.
Q. 13. Give the characteristics of Social Class?
Ans. Class is a social group within the collectivity. Classes are neither defined by
law nor sanctioned by religion. Social class is generally defined as a stratum of
people occupying similar social positions in terms of wealth, income, occupation, and factors like education. Class is a system of stratification in which a person's
social status depends upon his or her ' achievement.
Social class permits an individual to strive for and attain a change in her or his
status. In a social class, there is a feeling of equality of relation to members of
one's own class. Individuals belonging to the same social class are expected to
maintain similar stands of life and to choose their occupations within a limited
Q. 14. Explain, what is the economic basis of class formation?
Ans. Economic Basis: According to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, class is
based only on account of differences in economic power. They have described
classes as economic conflict groups which are divided on the basis of the
possession of the various instruments of production. Freeman and slave,
patrician and plebian, lord and serf guild-master and journey-men, oppressor and
oppressed are the names of social classes in different historical periods.
In this way they believed an industrial society to be composed of two classes: the
bourgeois capitalist and the proletariat laborer. Before the industrial revolution,
there were two classes: landlords and agriculturists since the main form of
production was land. According to them, wealth determines the social status of
the individual, and the basis of class stratification is economic differences.
Q. 15. What are the basic differences between caste and class?
Ans. Caste and class have the following fundamental differences:
(1) An individual gets his caste from his very birth and usually, he is not capable
of changing it. But a person does not inherit class but finds his place in the class
on the basis of his ability, virtues, and qualifications.
(2) Caste is a closed system of organization. A person can not change his caste.
On the other hand, the class system of organization is an open one because
membership is on the basis of acquiring money, power, or both. One will forego
one's class on losing money or power.
(3) Caste system does hinder democracy, whereas the class system does not hinder
(4) The caste imposes many restrictions on its members and they are very strictly
imposed, whereas there are no restrictions by the class on its members.
(5) The members of a caste should not marry outside the caste without social or
caste annoyance. However, the people can marry out of their class without
earning any social disreputation or being thrown out of society.
Q. 16. What do you understand by the word ‘Tribe’? Give the definition of Tribe?
Ans. The tribe is a social gathering of a typical type of people having vast
differentiations with the rural and urban people. Tribes in the traditional sense are
backward people who live aloof from the rest of the people. " Tribe" has been defined
as under :
(1) Dr. River: " Tribe is a simple type of social group, in which a common dialect is
used by all trials, they work together, in war and peace."
(2) Bogardus " The tribal group was based on the need for protection on ties of
blood relationship and on the strength of a common religion."
Q. 17. A Tribal life has the following essential characteristics:
(1) A tribe has common habitation and has definite common topography or
(2) Each tribe has a distinct name of its own.
(3) Members of a tribe have a definite sense of unity.
(4) Members, of a tribe, speak a common dialect.
(5) The members are close and near to each other and have a blood relationship.
(6) The members of the tribe protect each other and work in the spirit of unity.
(7) Many classes constitute together to form a tribe.
Q. 18. Explain what are the basic differences between Caste and Tribe?
Ans. (1) A tribe is a local or territorial group but a caste is a social group.
(2) The tribals have their own common dialect whereas there is no common
language, with a caste.
(3) A tribe never imposes restrictions on its members regarding the choice of
occupation, but a caste usually promotes hereditary occupations.
(4) Tribe becomes caste with the loss of its territorial attachment but castes
cannot become tribes.
(5) Tribe is a political association, whereas caste is a social association.
Q.19. What are the basic differences between Tribe and Harde?
Ans. A nomadic hard is a very small group of individuals. The tribe is sometimes
confused as a synonym for hard. But, in. fact, the tribe is distinct from hard in the
(1) A Tribe is bigger in size, whereas a horde is a group small in size.
(2) Religion is much developed in a tribe in comparison to a horde. In horde,
stern rules are to be followed.
(3) Horde possesses a stronger sense of unity in comparison to the tribe because of
tribe's big size.
(4) The need for protection is much prominent in the case of a tribe in comparison to
(5) Tribe is divided into several groups but horde is an undivided single unit.
Q. 20. Write a short note on " The Dowry Prohibition Act 1961'?
Ans. IN order to abolish the custom of dowry the government has passed the
Dowry Prohibition Act in 1961. It is true that the laws alone cannot change the
people's customs, habits, and behavior, as Pandit Nehru said during the debate
on the Dowry Prohibition Act 1961 that legislation cannot by itself normally solve
deep-rooted social problems, but legislation is necessary and essential so that it
may give a push and have that education factor as well as the legal shape." The
Dowry Prohibition Act was enacted on 20th May 1961 and came into force since
July 1, 1961.
Q 21. What is Untouchability? Discuss its disabilities?
Ans. It is extremely difficult to define untouchability. Dr. D.N. Majumdar has said,
" The untouchable castes are those who suffer from various social and political
disabilities many of which are traditionally prescribed and socially enforced by
higher castes.” In brief, untouchables are those castes which are subject to some
disabilities in every walk of life: Social, religious, economic and untouchables
suffer from the following disabilities:
(1) Religious Disabilities: The untouchables are prohibited from entering temples,
monasteries and cremation grounds.
(2) Social Disabilities: (i) The Untouchable was forbidden to draw water from the
wells or fetch water from village tanks.
(ii) The children of untouchables did not have the right to enter the schools and
sit along with high caste children.
(3) Economic Disabilities: Their conventional occupations were dirty and soiled.
works like shoemaking etc.
Q. 22. What are the remedies of Casteism?
Ans. The following are some suggestions concerning the solution of the problems
arising out of casteism:
(1) Proper Education: The greatest need for a solution to the problem of
casteism is proper education. The educational institutions should be able to
provide an atmosphere in which caste distinctions are not encouraged, while at
At the same time, the children are allowed to developed distaste for this kind of
(2) Intercaste-Marriage: Another way to combating the continuing increase in
casteism is the encouragement of intercaste marriage.
(3) Lesser use of the word ‘caste' One way of solving the problems of casteism
is to make less frequent use of the word ' caste’ so that there may be no traces of
it left in the mind of the impressionable children and they should not be imbued
within the idea of caste distinction.
(4) Cultural and Economic equality: Another way of facing the problem of
casteism is to introduce cultural and economic equality in the minds and the lives
of the various castes.
Q. 23. Write a short note on Regionalism?
Ans. Of course, regionalism has always been present in India. Regionalism is
the sense of affection and attachment for people belonging to one's own region
and hatred for those who belong to some other region. As a result of this, people
of one region in India have started looking at people from some other part of the
country in the same light in which they are prone to regard foreigners. Now a
day, regionalism has become, a serious problem in India.
Q. 24. Explain the political causes behind Regionalism?
Ans. The main reason for regionalism present in the country is of a political
nature. It different regions some people have demanded the formation of regional
governments and in this, they have been inspired by regional interest and by aims
of gaining power. In this direction, a major part has been played by the
revolutionary Maga party guided by Phizo, the Akali Party of Punjab, and the
D.M.K. Party of South and other political parties. The truth is that the leaders of
these political parties are responsible for having propagated regionalism in these
respective areas. Not only this, but even Some representatives from different areas
who are members of political parties give prime importance to the interest of their
own regions even in the far national interests which are disregarded by them.
Q. 25. Write a short note: " Dowry is a Social Evil”?
Ans. (1) The chief evil of the dowry system is that the parents of the bride are
compelled to give it as a price for marriage. If the bride party fails to give the
promised amount in full at the time of marriage the bride suffers. They are not
well treated and respected in their in-law’s families. Thus the condition of such girls
is very pitiable and miserable.
(2) Due to the dowry system, the general status of women is lowered, female children
are unwanted and undesirable and hence ill-treated or even murdered.
(3) The evil of dowry is the cause for breakage of families and social
(4) The status of women is decreasing because of the dowry system.
(5) The matrimonial relations are damaging due to dowry.
Q. 26. Give the meaning and definition of ' Sanskritisation'?
Ans. According to M.N. Srinivas, " Sanskritisation is" a process by which a low
Hindu caste or tribal or other group changes its customs, rituals, ideology, and
way of life in the direction of a high, frequently, "twice-born caste."
There are three basic elements in Sanskritisation. They are:
(1) Imitation: The lower castes imitate the customs, values, and behavior patterns
of the upper castes.
(2) Closeness: The lower castes through Sanskritisation come nearer to the
(3) Social Mobility: Generally, Sanskritisation helps the lower castes to move up
the social ladder.
Q.27. Explain what changes seem to be in marriage, in Modern Indian Society?
Ans. (1) Almost all child marriages disappeared.
(2) Parental choice in the selection of a mate is decreasing.
(3) The movement for the eradication of the dowry system has been increasing.
(4) The marriage age of boys and girls has been increased to 21 years and 18
(5) A number of social reformers and educated people are propagating inter-
caste marriages. A number of State Governments have taken several measures
like cash awards, preferences in jobs, etc. for those who marry outside their
(6) There is a slight change with regard to divorce people are coming forward to
marry divorced women and men.
(7) Widow marriages have not been looked down and the sati custom reached to
zero levels except for a few cases here and there.
Q. 28. What is the meaning of casteism?
Ans. Casteism is partial or one-sided loyalty in favor of a particular caste, lien any
mode of thinking assumes the form of an ism, and it becomes rigid & partial.
K. M. Panikkar, " In this way, it is only because of casteism that the smiths want to
benefit only the Smiths while the joneses want to come to the aid of the other
joneses. It matters Ettle if the members of the other castes are irreparably
harmed if it does not cause any concern to the Smiths and Joneses."
Q. 29. What are the basic differences between Tradition and Modernity?
Ans. It may see that modernity is the polar opposite of tradition. Traditionalism
refers to old traditions and customs, Traditionalism is non-materialistic. It gives
less importance to an individual and more to the organization. It also gives
importance to religion and customs. But modernization is an adoptive process. It
involves transformation and adoption of tradition but not its supercedence. Since
modernization stands for a rational approach to azll aspects of social life, it is not
opposed to tradition because all traditions are not necessarily irrational, but it is
certainly opposed to traditionalism which is the tendency to think of all past
belierfs and practics as immutable.
Q. 30. What do you mean by Industrialization?
Ans. Moore says, " Industrialization is the extensive use of inanimate sources of
power in the production of economic goods and services."
The concept of industrialization is not limited solely to manufacturing
undertakings, as agriculture and services such as transportation and
communication are also subject to mechanization. The development of the factory
system of production also expanded to the corporate business method. The use
of machines gave rise to a greater division of labor. The new modes of production
resulted in a great increase in production and reduction of unit cost. Industrialization
gives rise to an economic organization that influences all sections of the
society, Industrial society is dynamic.
Q. 31. What are the features of Urbanism? Explain.
Ans. Louis-Wirth says, " Urbanization is a process of extension or accentuation of
the mode of life, characteristic of a city."
According to Wirth, the features of Urbanism are:
(1) A complex division of labor with a diversified occupational structure which
forms a major basis of the system of Social stratification.
(2) High territorial and social mobility.
(3) Marked functional dependence of the population.
(4) Substantial personal anonymity in interpersonal contacts and
segmentalization of social roles and role interaction.
(5) Reliance on indirect modes of social control.
(6) Normative device.
Q. 32. What is the meaning of urbanization Define the term urbanization?
Ans. According to Louis Wirth, Urbanization is a process of extension or
accentuation of the mode of life, characteristic of a city.
J.C. Mitchel defines urbanization as the process of becoming urban moving to
cities, changing from agriculture to other pursuits common to cities and
corresponding changing of behavior pattern.
According to Kingsley Davis, Urbanization is the switch from ‘spread out' to
concentration pattern of human settlement.
Q. 33. Explain, what are the causes behind urbanization in India?
Ans. The following are some of the causes for urbanization in India :
(1) Industrialization in cities provides work for many rural people.
(2) Trade and commerce play an important role in the growth of towns and cities.
(3) Due to the agricultural revolution, the modernization of agriculture helps the
growth of industrial and commercial towns and cities.
(4) The various means of transport and communications play an important role in
the growth of cities.
(5) As educational facilities are available in towns and cities, many people from
rural areas join in educational institutions to seek higher, scientific, and vocational
Q. 34. Give the meaning and definition of social change?
Ans. MacIver and Page: " Social change is the change that occurs in social
relationships alone." They further say, " It is seen apparent that social change is a
process responsive to many types of change, to changes in the man-made
conditions of living, to changes in the attitudes and beliefs of men, and to
changes that go beyond human control to be biological and physical nature of
Davis: " By social change is meant only such alterations as occurring is a social
organization, that is, the structure and function of society."
Q.35. What are the characteristics of Social Change?
Ans. (1) Social change is a universal phenomenon.
(2) It is community change.
(3) Speed of Social Change is not uniform.
(4) The spread of Social Change is different from time to time.
(5) It may occur either in natural or planned efforts.
(6) It occurs as an essential law.
(7) It results from interaction.
(8) It is the consequence of factors.
(9) It may be in the form of modification or replacement.
Q. 36. What effects of urbanization on India Society? Explain briefly?
Ans. (1) Everyone Is concerned about himself or his friends and lacks sympathy
(2) As the population increases in cities, there is a decline in control of family and
caste on the behavior of an individual.
(3) As no elder man is available at home, there is a decline in family control over
(4) There is a change in the status of women in cities and there is a great awakening
(5) There are sprawling slums in big Indian towns.
(6) In cities, the joint family system has broken down.
(7) There is an increase in, the incidence of crime in cities.
Q 37. Explain the characteristics of Westernization in short?
Ans. Westernization refers to changes brought about in Indian society during the
British rule and which continues even after independence. The characteristics of
(1) Westernization helped the introduction of scientific and technological
(2) A number of changes took place in the lifestyle, social relations, values,
customs and traditions.
(3) Democratic values, humanitarianism equalitarianism, and secularization
spread all over Indian.
(4) It established bureaucracy, police, army, educational and legal institutions.
(5) It facilitated railways, road transport, boat transport and telegraph, radio,
a printing press and other communications.
(6) Urbanization Industrialization and Sanskritisation were influenced.
(7) Changed the status of women.
Q. 38. What do you mean by modernization, define it?
Ans. Eisenstadt says, "" Historically, modernization is the process of change
towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have
developed in Western Europe and North America from the Seventeenth to
nineteenth-century and then has spread to other European countries and from
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African
Denial Lerner has defined modernization as " the process of social change
whereby less developed societies acquire characteristics common to the more
developed." He further states that modernization refers to a ' disquieting positivist
spirit' touching public institutions as well as private aspirations.
Q. 39. Explain the concept of Division of Labor in Indian tribes?
Ans. Among the Indian tribes, division of labor varies from the simple husband
and wife sharing the responsibilities to the division of tasks based on vocations.
Among the tribes like those of Andamanese, women look after the welfare of the
children. Among the changes, men hunt, while women take care of the cooking.
Among the Bhils, men go hunting while women and children collect forest
produce. Among the Gonds, there is a wide range of specializations. Among the
Todas women are restricted to their homes while men handle the buffaloes and
milk them. The overall division of labor varies from tribe to tribe.
Q.40. Explain the feature of Tribal Economy in brief?
Ans. (1) The economic activities are organized on the basis of co-operation and
(2) Tribals live below the life of poverty and utter scarcity. They work very hard
(3) There is no division of labor on the basis of specialization.
(4) The production is done without technical instruments and leads to the
wastage of materials.
(5) For securing economic ends, religion and magic activities are employed by
Q. 41. Write a short note on " The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856?
Ans. Through the efforts of Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, the Hindu Widow
Remarriage Act was passed in 1856 to render remarriage of Hindu Widows valid
and to legalize the legitimacy of children, irrespective of caste regulations
concerning remarriage. A widow shall not, by reason of her remarriage, forfeit any
property or any right to which she would otherwise be entitled, and every widow
who has remarried shall have the same rights of inheritance as she would have
had, had such marriage been her first marriage. This Act is in existence till today.
Q. 42. Write a short note on The Prevention of Sati Act, 1829?
Ans. The Prevention of Sati Act, 1829: With the initiation of Raja Ram Mohan
Roy, Lord William Bentick took personal interest and boldly struck the practice
with the enactment of the Sati Act. The Prevention of Sati Act of 1829 made the
burning or burying alive of widows culpable homicide, punishable with fine and