BA LLB sociology 1st semester sample question answer on Religion

BA LLB sociology first semester sample question answer on Religion: In this post you will read about RELIGION, What is religion ? What are its social functions (ballb sociology) , Write short note on Primitive Religion,

Question. 1. What is religion ? What are its social functions. (ballb sociology)

Answer.

What is Religion? Religion is instinctive to man. Man is the only religious being. As reason distinguishes him from the animal, he can similarly be distinguished through religion. Man is finite-infinite being. From the time when a man opened his eyes on this planet, he has been desirous of knowing and being acquainted with the conscious power latent in nature. As and when he was compelled to face natural hardships and dangers, storms, floods, lightning, epidemics, famines, deluge, scarcity, dangerous animals, etc.

man has looked up to some invisible power for assistance, motivation, strength, and help. This religious tendency awoke in man when he was gripped sometimes by fear and at other times by curiosity.

And, the man tried to realize this intangible power for reasons such as to obtain salvation from the sorrows and transience, death, birth and old age. Similarly, man, when he got fed up of the worldly sensual love, conceived God as the object of love in the supreme aesthetic idealistic form. There is no relation which the man did not attach to God. People

tried to attain God in the form of father, friend, husband, master, lover,  beloved, verily in every from. In this way man, time and again, attempted to quench his urges in that Power the search of which is religion. 

Social Functions of Religion 

 1. Religion and Service. Every where, religion manifested itself

in man’s social tendency. Human beings learned to love each other in the form of children of the same father. Finding god potent in everybody the devotees sacrificed their life fort the Divine Power who is in the form of society. With regard to many saints, it is related that they licked clean the wounds of lepers because they were serving God manifested in the form of the lepers. In the Gita, the worshipper of god has been ordered to engage in the service of all living beings. Love and services are accorded considerable importance in the Christian religion.

Christ served the poor, convalescing and sorrowing people throughout his life which culminated in his crucification. The Islamic religion has encouraged the tendency of brotherhood Buddhist religion to preach non-violence, compassion, and sympathy. Similarly, even in ancient tribal religions, the people recognizing the same totem or God were well organized. Religion has always generated a sense of belongingness in society.

2. Religion and Education. Religion has served humanity through the spreading of education. In almost all places in the world, the spread of education. In almost all places in the world, the spread of education has had an important place in all religious campaigns and the activities of religious institutions. Priests in Christian churches and their contemporaries in Islamic mosques, Hindu temples and Buddhist monastries have long been engaged in the spreading of education. · Religion also caused some encouragement to higher education. While Nalanda and Taxilla were the centers of Buddhist religion, they were at the same time the bases of knowledge and consummate mastery. Men of different communities made serious efforts to spread education among the members of their community.

3. Religion and Benevolence. There has been a tradition of medical service in society in the name of religion. The fundamental reasons for such a move is that the religions person treats the service of the helpless and ill as part of his worship to God. In order to stock up virtue and due to a feeling for service it is a tradition among rich people to open the hospitals, distribute medicines and necessary clothes, etc. An important aspect of the daily life of saints as service.


4. Religion and alms giving. To religion is conjoined alms-giving. Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and all other religions have accepted the importance of alms-giving. In Hindu religion, a person who consumes without giving alms is thieving. Given in Islam it is a religious constitution to give as alms a part of one’s income. The purpose of alms was the economic assistance to the poor members of the society. It prevented inequality in society and maintained the balance. Even today one comes across people indulging in such activities as distributing clothes. Some people go to the extent of giving up everything in the

name of religion.

5. Religion and forbearance. All religions have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. Christ said that if a person begs you for your Cloak, give him your coat as well and if slapped on one check, present the other. This religious tolerance is in evidence from Christ to Martin Luther, Buddha to Ashoka, and from ancient Indian saints to Gandhi.

6. Religion and Non-violence. All the founders of religions the world over-Christ, Buddha, Mohammed and Hindu seers and saints have preached love and non-violence. Jains and Buddhists treated non-violence as the supreme duty. Mohammad himself suffered many kinds of cruelty. Even when Christ was mounting the cross, he begged God to forgive those who were responsible for this gross misdeed. Although Gandhiji had been shot he politely addressed the assailant and bowed.

7. Religion and World Brotherhood. Religion also arguments the feeling of world brotherhood. As far as a religious person is concerned, everyone has been made by God and he worships Him in different forms and names. In this way, religion generates a sense of the “world as a family”. Christ, Gandhi, Buddha and Mohammed, not to mëntion other religious sages, have all preached world brotherhood. Religion teaches the lesson of sacrifice and service, removing selfishness and material tendencies. Immoral Activities under A Religious Pretext

But all these good activities in the name of religion in society do not imply that immoral acts have not been done under a religious pretext. The society has also been harmed as it has been assisted by religion and consequently some people want to eradicate the name of religion from society. One can say the following things on the subject:

1. Dogmatism. Religion has been the basis of dogmatism. Fearing

God and the next world religious people do not have the courage to

break ancient traditions and customs. In this way, religion has become . the most serious obstacle to child marriage, a negation of widow remarriage, the sati custom, etc. Religion has handicapped social progress,

2. Exploitation. In this way, women have been mercilessly exploited in the name of religion, in human history. The religious scholars have stripped her of all rights and made her the slave of man. The principle of Karma prevented the poor and injured from revolting against exploitation.

3. Laziness and fatalism. Religion encouraged fatalism and man in different religion live a parasitic life, a burden to society, on religious pretensions. In India, thousands of people garbed as sages live a lazy life, becoming a burden to society.

4. Violence and War. Bloody wars have been fought for centuries both in the East and West on the same pretext. The pages of human history are cultured with accounts of the bloodsheds of the crusades, and the jihaads. In Europe alone, some four hundred men and women were burnt alive in the name of religion. In India, such religious fanatics as Aurangzeb wielded cruelty to other religious people, again in the name of religion.

5. Despise and hatred. In this way, religion was responsible for currents of hatred and despising which pulsate in society. If God had lent his ears to these religious people in their prayers for the destruction of others, man would not have soiled the fact of this planet today. In Hindu-Muslim communal riots in India, naked women were taken out in procession and beaten with whips, unweaned children thrown into the fire; the breasts of women severed and people turned out of their countries and compelled to beg and roam. Viewing these in human activities in the name of religion, one doubts whether religion makes man a saint or devil. Religion and Religionism

But even aster seeing these defects religion cannot be deported from society, Religion cannot be irrevocably condemned for their sake because similar deeds have been done in the name of politics, science, race, country and state. Wherever any ideals and thoughts are transformed into institutions in society their life energy becomes petrified as it gets entangled in external limitations and this culminates in the body being worshipped instead of the soul. The truths of religion were destroyed as they had become involved not inextricably, in scriptures,

churches, methods of worship, priests and other fry of the congregation, separating the latter from true religion. Sri Aurobindo has christened it religionism. All defects attributed to religion are the defects of religionism. Religionism is as false and harmful as racism, groupisin and narrow nationalism.

BA LLB sociology first semester sample question answer on Religion
BA LLB sociology first semester sample question answer on Religion

Question. 2. Write short note on Primitive Religion.(ballb sociology)

Describe the religious beliefs and practices of Primitive people. Discuss the role of religion in primitive social life.

 Answer.

Tribal Religion 

Tribal religion is the most primitive form of religion found in human society. The following are the important characteristics of the Indian tribal religion :

1. Mana – Defining faith in Mana found in tribal society Codrington has pointed out that Mana is, “A force altogether distinct from physical power, which acts in all kinds of ways for good and evil, and which is of the greatest advantage to possess or control.”

Thus Mana is a supernatural power which is useful to man in the control of many natural phenomena beyond his power.

According to Majumdar and Madan, “Entire religious life of the primitives is born out of their belief in certain understandable, impersonal, non-material and unindividualized supernatural power which takes abode in all the objects, animate and inanimate, that exist in the world.”

According to Maxmuller. Mana is an attempt to define certain natural phenomena in terms of an impersonal power. The high mountain, the river, the thunder and all other natural phenomena, according to the tribal people, act with the power of Mana. This power acts both for good and for bad. It is connected with the soul, the ghost of the departed man and the living being.The Ho and Munda tribes of Chhota Nagpur call it Bonga.




2. The Concept of Bonga – According to these tribes, Bonga is a mysterious and impersonal power at the back of rains, tempests, cold, floods, epidemics and the wild animals. Everywhere activity is due to the power of Bonga. Thus, Bonga is a form of Mana.

3. Animism – Another important characteristics of Indian tribal religion is animism. According Risley, Tribal religion is animism. The tribal people believe in the presence of supernatural powers at the back of high mountains, flooded rivers, big trees and epidemics. They try to please these powers by means of different types of propitiations and worships. Sometimes, they are worshipped even without being given by any name. An important type of animism is ancestral worship which is

found among the Santhals and Oraons. The Santhals worship Deities of family and village deities. Among the Korawa tribe, there is a goddess

of crop, one of animals and a deity presiding rains. The tribal people I try to please these gods and goddesses by offering the sacrifices of different types of animals and birds before them.

The principle of animism is based on the following two beliefs :

1. There are powerful souls besides powerful gods, souls are connected with men, and feel pleasure and pain through them. They influence the events in this world and also control them.

2. The soul of man survives even after his death. The word “animism’ was used for the first time by E.B. Taylor in anthropological literature. Animism, according to Taylor, is “the groundwork of the philosophy of religion from that of savage up to that of civilized man.”

3. Animalism – According to animalism, there is some impersonal power behind every material object besides the living beings. Thus in the tribal religions is found faith in the presence of supernatural power in bones and feathers etc.

This impersonal power is worshipped to maintain peace and prosperity in the group. It was difficult to distinguish between animalism and animism. The following distinctions, however, have been pointed out between the two. While according to animalism there is some mysterious, unknown, impersonal power at the back of all living beings and things, according to animism there is animal spirit found in all movable and immovable things.

An example of animalism is found in the tribe of Bihar. They consider the bones, beads, stones and feathers to have living and magical powers. The stones are considered to be the children of mother earth and worshipped. The tribal people worship only those powers which can do some harm to them, sometimes such powers are also worshipped which cannot do any n, for example, the Sing-Bonga of the Munda tribe. Though it difficult to say as to which type of nature worship is found in a particular tribe in India, generally one finds animism as well as animalism in most of the tribes. From the comparative point of view, however, animalism is niore widespread than animism.

4. Neutralism – A universal characteristics of tribal religion naturalism or nature worship. The Garo tribe of Assam worships sun and moon. The Munda people worship sun god. Besides other tribes Worship risers, mountains, stars, trees and other natural objects.

5. Faith in the Immortality of Soul – Among many tribes there as a custom of observing funeral rites two times. This is because of their

faith in the immortality of the soul. Sometimes the second rite is considered to be more important than the first. The tribals believe that the soul is not destroyed on the death of the body and requires food etc., for a sufficient by long time. Among the Nagas and the tribals of the Nikobar island, the skull of the dead man will pass from the skull to the statue. Now the statue is served like a living human being and efforts are made to fulfill all its needs.

Sometimes the statue is made of brass. Such is the custom among the Garo tribe of Assam. In South India in Kerala the statue of a dead person is worshipped at least once a year. The tribals believe that the soul matter can increase the fertility of land and produce life. In the Naga tribe there is a custom of worshipping souls of the ancestors at the time of sowing and in the need of rains.

6. Faith in Rebirth – Most of the Indian tribes believe that after death the soul of a man survives the body and enters into the body of some animal, bird, or other living being. Among the Bhils efforts are done to find out as to which body will be entered into by a particular soul. Similar beliefs are found among Nagas of Assam, Ahirs of Bengal, Kamar and Gond tribes.

7. Faith in Magic – The most important characteristic of tribal religion is faith in magic. According to M.F. Keesing, “In its technical sense, magic is a term which summarises a variety of methods by which man purports to influence automatically the course of events by that touch of the supernatural. A magical act is a rite carried out to twist. Nature in a specific way to satisfy human desire.” Different types of magical acts are prevalent in different tribes. The tribals believe in magicians and witches. If a woman is declared a witch by the magician of the village, she is Liven all types of tortures.

A strange type of magical rite is found among the Bhils to contradict the effect of an epidemic. In the event of the spread of an epidemic, some people have some pitchers and baskets in a bamboo pole and run on the main street crying Toraka, Toraki’. Hearing the other people of the village ‘help them in carrying this load out of the village. The load is carried to the nearest river or jungle and throwing it the people believe that the epidemic has been thrown out of the forest. –

8. Tolem and Taboo — The custom of totem is an important characteristics of tribal religion. Different Indian tribes believe in different types of totems. The totem is considered to be the originator of a particular tribe. Its killing and eating is a taboo for the people of the particular tribe. It is worshipped and respected everywhere.

Marriages cannot be contracted among the male and female of the said totem, because they are thought to be having blood relationship.

In fact tribal religion is the most primitive form of human religion.. Thus it exhibits that unrefined purity characteristics of the primitive form. It is the beginning of religious revolution. Hence in it one finds magic, religion and ritualism all in one. In it their is no distinction of utility and religious sanctity. Mostly, the latter depend on the former. The tribal religion is not merely a particular part of the tribal life, but enters in life everywhere. The religious and social activities of the tribal people are closely inter-connected.

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Q 1. What do you man by Education? What are its various aims and forms?

Ans. Meaning of Education – Education is a means of transformation of human nature and culture. The term education has been derived from the Latin word ‘Educare’ which ‘mean’ to ‘educate’ E ‘to bring up’ ‘to raise’ or ‘to-elevate’.- It is also a means of bringing out what is the best within a man. It is also responsible for bringing out the learnt potentialities of a person. It is also a part of training.

Real meaning of Education – The education is generally used in two senses; one that lays emphasis on the training and the teaching and the second one, development of an individual according to potentialities.

It is the second meaning which lays emphasis on ‘leading forth’ or ‘to lead out which is used in the present contexts. This meaning of education is widely is used in the present contexts. This meaning of education is widely accepted and vitally correct. Through education, man is able about sublimation and redirection.

Through process of education man really becomes a social animal. Locke in this context has rightly remarked: “Plant are developed by cultivation and man by education.” John Dewey, one of the most important educationists of the modern age, has also said something similar in this context: “What food is for physical development, education is for social growth’a man is born with certain latent and inborn faculties and potentialities.

They develop as a result of conduct with the environment. Similarly education is responsible for bringing out the latent and inborn faculty of man. Through education man is able to adjust himself with the atmosphere

and in doing so he uses his physical mental and emotional ties, and the result is the development of the personality. Education is the sum total of the experience which brings about the development. Development and acquiring of experiences goes on throughout the life and so is the case with education. Education, that is acquired through formal agencies like_school, family, social group etc. is a very limited and narrow education. Apart from it, it goes on in the wilder field of the world. The real meaning of the education can be understood only when we look at the various definitions that have been propounded by other various thinkers and philosophers.

Definition of Education – Since ancient days various social thinkers, philosophers and scholars have given different definition of education. These definitions are based own views about life and society. They have accordingly defined education. Given below are a few definitions.

(1) Education as defined by Plato (328-348 B.C.) — “Education (is) that training which is given by suitable habits to the first instincts of virtue in children… which leads you always to have what you ought to hate, and love what you ought to love from the beginning of the life to the end…. in my view, will be rightly called education.” .

(2) Aristotle’s definition of education – Aristotle (348-322 B.C. another eminent philosopher of Greece has defined education in the following words:

“….. education of the young requires the special attention of the law giver. Indeed the neglect of this is states in injurious to their constitution, for education ought to be adapted to the particular form of constitution.”

(3) Education as defined by Quintilian – The great Roman educator (35 B.C. 100 A.D.):

“My aim them, is the education of the perfect orator. The first essential for such a one is that he should be a good man, and consequently we demand of him not merely the possession of exceptional gifts of speech but of all excellencies of character as well …… The man who can really play his part as a citizen and is capable of meeting the demands both of public and private business, the man who can guided a state by his counsels, give it firm basis by his legislation, and purge its vices by his decision as judge is assuredly no other than the orator of our quest.” (4) Education as defined by Ghazali or Alghazal (1058-1111

(4) Education as defined by Ghazali or Alghazal (1058-1111

A.D.) – Alghazal, the famous Arabian philosopher like Ruskin has laid  great emphasis on the practical nature of education in his essay ‘My Child’. He has defined education in the following words:

“Knowledge without action is insanity but action without knowledge is not action. Know that all knowledge cannot save you from sin and will make you obedient, and will not free you from fire of hell, unless you really act according to your knowledge.” ;

In the ancient time, education was considered to be the privilege of few and particularly the princes and members of royal family. Education has, therefore, been defined by the ancient philosophers in their reference. Erasmus, the famous philosopher while writing in his book “The Education of a Charistian Prince” has defined education in the following words.

“A prince who is about to assume control of the state must be advised at once that the main hope of a state lies in the proper education of its youth….. Pliable youth is amenable to any system of training. Therefore, greater care should be exercised over public and private schools and over education of the girls…. Education exerts such a powerful influence, as Plato says that a man who has been trained in the right develops into a sort divine creature, while on the other hand, a person who has received a perverted training, degenerates into a monstrous sort of savage beast.” 

Comenius (1592-1670) – Another eminent philosopher and educationists and defined education like this:

“Nature gives the germinal capacities for the knowledge, morality and religion but it does not give knowledge, morality and religion themselves. Rather these are required through learning, acting and praying. Therefore, somebody rightly has defined man as an educable animal since he cannot become a man unless he is educated Hence all who are born as human beings need education because they are destined to be real men, not wild beasts dull animals, and.clumps of wood. From this also follows; the better one is educated the more he excels others.”

 Rousseau (1712-1773) – Rousseau has defined education in the following words:

“Al that we are not possessed of at birth and which we acquire when grown up, is bestowed on us by education. This education we receive from men or from circumstances. The constitutional exertion of our organ and faculties is the education of nature; the uses we are laughing to make of that exertion, constitute the education given to us by

men; and in the acquisitions made by our own experience, on the objects that surround us, consists of education form circumstances.”

Henrich Pestalozzi (1740-1827) – The famous educationist has delined education in the following words:

“Education is nothing more than the polishing of each single link in the great chain that binds humanity together and gives it unity.”

John Friedrich Herbert (1776-1841) – Has declined the education has given below:

“If one considers the nature of education he will recognise that unity of aim is ideal which cannot be realised, because the teacher must foresee the future man in the boy. Consequently, the teacher must try to envisage the purposes which the pupil will purpose after he has grown up. It is the teacher’s task to prepare before hand in his pupil the desirable facility for achieving his goals.”

Education as defined by Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel (1782-1852) – The founder of the Kindergarten system of education: “By education then, the divine essence of man should be unfolded, brought out, lifted into consciousness, and man himself raised into free conscious obedience to the divine principle that lives in him and to free representation of this principle in his life.”

by Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) – To prepare us for complete living, is the function which education has to discharge, and the only rational mode of judging an education course, is to judge in what degree it discharges such function.”

It defined by Kill Patric: “And educational Programme will be concerned to help each individual, child grow up from his state of initial dependence into sull participation in the richest available group

life including in democratic country a full share in the active management of group affairs, such an adequate programme will besides go on further to an active effort to improve the group culture.”

Q. 2. Give in brief, the definitions of education as given by various Indian thinkers and philosophers.

Ans. Indian thinkers have also given out definition in different ways. These definitions are based on the philosophy of life of these thinkers and philosophers. One of the ancient Indian thinker Shankaracharya was of view that education is an instrument for Salvation. Anything that brings about that object is education. Even before him smritis and Upanishad etc. gave out the definition. Lord Krishna had declared that “There is no purifier like upto right knowledge..”

Manu, the great law-giver in his Manusmriti said that: “The first place (should be given) to Shiksha, education, next to Raksha or protection and 3rd to Jivika, livelihood.”

Lord Buddha also gave education a very important place. He placed right knowledge or education at the top place. Apart from these ancient philosophers, thinkers and law-givers, modern philosophers and thinkers have also given out various definitions of education. Some of these definition are quoted below:

(1) Education as defined by Swami Vivekanand: “Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man.”

It means that man has certain innate qualities and they have to be brought out. Once these qualities are brought out_man becomes — nearer to God.

(2) Education as defined by Mahatma Gandhi-Mahatma Gandhi fully realised the importance of education. He know that it was a powerful instrument for changing the man and society. He in his work has dealt on various aspects of education, His best definition of education is as follows:

“By education. I mean an all-round training out of the best in child and man body, mind and spirit.”

These definitions very clearly mean that education is the process of the development of the innate qualities of man and bringing about all-round development of the personality. In other words, it means that through education it is possible to bring about not only the around development of the personality but also his internal faculties and social qualities.

Education as defined By Jawahar Lal Nehru – Jawahar Lal Nehru was well aware of the importance of education. In regard to education, he remarked that: “The type of education which concerns itself only with the reading of book is from the human point of view, from any point of view, incomplete.”

In regard to Indian Society and education, Pandit Nehru remarked.

“…….. Whatever the pattern of society we are visualizing it must? contain trained human being, not people who have been learned to read and write but, trained men and women whose character has been developed, whose mind had within it some elements of culture and whose mind has within it some elements of culture and whose hands can do something.”




In other words, Pandit Nehru, the architect of the modern India

defined education as an instrument for the development of character and spiritual-moral physical and cultural development of man. –

(3) Education as defined by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the firs| Education Minister of India:

“Every individual has a right to education that will enable to develop his faculties and live a fully human life. Such education is the birth-right of every citizen. A state cannot claim to have discharged its duties until it has provided for every single individual the means to the acquisition of knowledge and self-betterment.”

Education as defined by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, who in words of Gandhiji was a true representative of Indian life and culture has defined education as:

** “…..the establishment of a two-fold harmony in every individual harmony within his ownself and harmony with other livings in the whole world….. The establishment of such a harmony through knowledge action and love used to be termed as ‘Yoga’ in our country.”

At another place, he in regard to education said:

“I feel that the mental moral or spiritual makeup of a student is, in the long run, of far greater importance and value than mere intellectual achievement.”

In other words like a true disciple of Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Radha Krishna, a dozen intellectual and prince amongst the education of the country headed the University Education Commission of 1949, which in its report defined education as given below. i “Education, according to Indian traditions, is not merely a means of earning a living nor is only a nursery of thought or schools for citizenship. It is an initiation into the life of spirit, a training of human souls in the pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue. It is the second Tirth i.e., Dvitiya Janma.”

Education as defined by the Education Commission headed by Dr. DS. Kothari, The Kothari Commission Report which is a very “valuable and comprehensive document so far as the education 187 concerned, has defined it as an instrument of change while pleading to link the education with the national productivity, national objectives, live needs and aspiration of the people, has defined it in the following words:

“If this change on a grand scale, has been achieved without violent Carevolution (and even then it would still be necessary) there is on

Gratrument and one instrument only, that can be used: Education.

Q. 3. Give a brief description of the form and nature of education. Discuss whether education is Science or Art.

Ans. Form and nature of education — From the definition given above we come to the conclusion is a life long process that starts since moment of birth and goes on till the graveyard. It is the process of ‘drawing out of the innate power of the child and bringing about his allround development so as to make him a good citizen and successful member of the society. While doing all this, education has to bring about a change in the group.

Tripolar process – Generally it is said that education is a by polar process, one poll being the teacher and the other student. Modern educators and thinkers added another poll or dimension to it and that is the subject matter or the content material. Now education is a three dimensional process in which the teacher imparts knowledge of some subject matter to the student. This process of education is very much influenced by our social life, social objectives and social aims and objects.

Education and Instruction – Sometimes education and instructions are confused as one. But the fact is that these are two different things : Instruction is one the parts or organs of education. In fact education has 3 part of aspects:

(1) Training, (2) Instruction, and (3) Inspiration.

No doubt instruction is an important aspect of education but the two are quite different from one and another. It lies on the following aspects:

(1) Scope – Education has a wide scope. The term education has a wider connotation. On the other hand instruction has limited scope and the term has a narrow connotation.

(2) Nature of the Process – Education is a life long and natural process while instrument is an artificial process which is limited to the school. Education ends only when the life ends but the instruction ends with the school.

(3) Superiority of Education – Education is a thing superior to instructions. Instruction is only a part of education. In instruction teacher – and the taught are of equal importance but in education the child or the educated occupies a central place.

Form of the Nature of Education – The form or nature of education may be categorised under various heads. Generally it is Cash Categorised under following four heads:

(1) Formal and Informal Education -Generally it is there two types of education that are very much in vogue. Formal education informal education. Since formal education is artificial its agencies which forms its period is prescribed, curricular is laid down, the place is fixed and he is the case with the method of teaching and teachers. It is not necessary for every body to clear this type of education. One who completes this prescribed education, get a certificate at the end.

(2) Informal Education – It is the natural or non-prescribed types of education. Every persons who acquires this type of education is learnt while every person who imparts, such education is a teacher. Neither the learner knows that he is being taught nor it is the teacher who knows that he is imparting education. It is this type of education which has been termed as a social process and which continues form the cradle to the court-yard. There are no prescribed agencies of this informal education but since man is social animal it is imparted by social agencies like family, society play field etc. Direct And Indirect Education

(1) Direct Education – This types of education is the result of direct contract between the teacher and the taught. In this process the teacher imparts his knowledge to the student according to his aims and objects. This is more or less a type of direct education.

. (2) Indirect Education – This is a type of informal education in which teacher, unknowingly imparts knowledge to his educated are not prescribed one. Individual and Collective Education

(a) Individual Education – This type of education is imparted by the teacher in view the interest, the capabilities and the faculties of the Student. The main object of this type of education is to bring about the development of the individual or personality of the child. This type of education is basically an education based on individual differences.

(b) Collective Education – This is the type of education that is imparted to the group of the student without bothering about their personal faculties, individual traits and individual differences. In this type of education, the teacher does not pay the individual attention. The education, that is imparted for the schools is education of this type.

This type of education is not considered to be very scientific and tempts are being made to improve it and do away with its differences.

General and Specific Education

(a) General Education – The education that is imparted to the child only for his development without keeping any specific object before the teacher, is called general education. this is also considered to be liberal education. It is more practical is nature and is considered necessary for each and everybody.

(b) Specific Education – This is the type of education that is imparted with some specific aim or object. For example education that is imparted for medical profession and for preparing trades, and engineers is called specific education. It is called specified because it has a specified object before it:

Education is an Art or Science – Education according to some the social thinkers is an art while according to some other, it is considered to be a science. The reality is that it has qualities of both within branch of knowledge. It is a scientific study of the theories according to which education is important while the actual teaching is an art.

Education is not Pure Science – It is wrong to state education is a pure science. It is very difficult to frame laws according to which the mind of the child works. Environment and circumstances do effect the education. It means that the laws according to which education is imparted are flexible. Education, therefore, cannot be called pure science. It is very difficult to frame laws according to which the mind of the child works. Environment and circumstances do effect the education. It means that the laws according to which education is imparted are flexible. Education, therefore, cannot be called pure

science.

Education is not Pure Art – Art is application of the scientific knowledge. From this point of view education is called an art. But when element impressionability comes its cannot be said that education is an pure art. Its object is neither to make things beautiful nor is the necessary for the education to make things useful. In education due importance is attached to the principles that government the human mind, therefore, the education is not pure art.

Education is both Science and Art – Really speaking education is both an art and science. It has the element of science as well as art. It makes use of the principles of education is a practical manner. Its theological aspect is science while its practical aspect is. art. It is a combination of both. Hence the education is science as well as art. 

Q. 4. What are the functions of education Institutions? What an Its aim in human life?

Ans. Education and its aims-Education is very important non only for individual life but also for our social life. It is a social process that has three things:

(1) Teacher, (2) Taught, and (3) Content material.

This process begins from the maternity home and end with cermation. Almost all the function that will discharge is our day-to-day life form a párt of education. It has the following functions to discharge:

lay Social Development – It is a social process that brings about the development of the individual as well as the group. It includes all the activities that are helpful in the development of individual. All the activities that bring about the physical and mental development from part of education. Environment and experiences influence the process of education. Through education attempt is made to create good atmosphere to enable the students to bring about good experiences.

Man cannot live all alone. He is to live in a society. Through education man is made a worthy member of the society. Its curriculum is framed accordingly. In short the main function of education is to bring about the social development of the individual or the child.

(b) Tripolar Process – Education is a process in which two ends that is the teacher and the taught are involved. Really speaking should be called a tripolar process because the teacher the student some subject matter. This new dimension of subject matter makes education a tri-polar process. This process has quite board basic and include many activities. It help the individual to acquire good experience and aims at providing him to healthy environment.

(c) Not limited to School – Education is, as already stated a broad base process which is not confined within the four walls of school. Education which is imparted in school is only formal education. Really speaking the whole of the world is school and all the innate objects are teacher.

(d) Harmonious Development of Innate Powers – Previously education was considered to be a process in which knowledge was imparted is that education leads to harmonious development of the innate powers of the child. It, it now also accepted that all the faculties are present in the child by himself, what is needed for their development and for this proper atmosphere has to be created. If the atmosphere is not balanced one, the development is also unbalanced. Education that leads to it is not the balanced education.

(e) Dynamic Process – Education is a dynamic process, it changes according to circumstances and situation. Education is in fact governed hy the aims, objects and requirements in the society. The aim of education in ancient India was different from the aim of education in India loday. It only points out to the conclusion that with the time, the value, aims and object of the society change and so does the education. Education wants to maintain its utility and useful form. That is why it is constantly trying to adjust itself and change its form.

19 Preparation of Life and Life Itself – Through education attempt is made to prepare a child to face life. The latest thinking in this regard is that it is the life itself. School present the problem that the child shall have to face in life. Since child has to become useful member of the society, the school should present him with an environment that would help him to achieve this object.

Role of Education in Social Control – Education is a sociological process which studies different aspects of society. It is not only a means of social control but also an agency for it. As an agency of social control, It plays a very important role. It is responsible for socialisaiton which is very important for the development of the personality. In fact, without education, no young boy or girl can become a useful member for the society. In fact, education makes him a real social being and provides him with all sorts of experience.

Study of the educational system of various countries has proved that through education, the entire system of the society has been changed and people have been convinced about it. This is true of American. Soviet Union, China and several other countries. Functions of the education as an agency of social control can be studied under the following heads:

(1) Development of Personality – Though education the child develops into the useful member in society. It also brings about his or her all-round development without which the life of the child cannot be useful,

(2) Acquaints the Child with the Culture and the Value – Through education the child gets acquainted with the values of the society and also the cultural heritage. This helps his to become a useful member of the society to which he belongs.

It makes him the real social being and provides him with all sorts of experience:

(3) Preparation for Future – Through education the child is able

To get prepared for his future life. It helps him to adjust himself with
bring about the development of the innate faculties of the child and also brings about his or her alround development. This development makes the child useful members of the society.

(5) Helpful in Achievement of their Objective-Through education a child is able to achieve his aims and objects. In other words through : education the child is able to achieve not only the personal aim but · also social objectives.

(6)Self dependence – The education help a child to acquire the quality of self-dependence. Through education, the child is able to acquire knowledge about several things and this knowledge generators self confidence in him.

(7) Ipmarts him Knowledge of the Outside World – Through education child is able acquire knowledge of the outside world, This knowledge not only helps him in adjustment but also helps him to feel self confidence and capable of facing the life.

Education is very important for human life as well as society it is the main instrument that makes man really social and successful member of the society. The goal as laid down by Confucius; the famous philosopher can be reached only through education:

“Lead the people by laws and regulate them by penalties and the people will try to keep out of jail but will have no sense of shame. Lead the people by virtue and restrain them by rule of decorum and the people will have a sense  of shame and moreover will become good.”









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