Table of Contents
Ba llb 3rd semester notes pdf communication-Visual Communication Advantages and Disadvantages of Visual Communication complete guide for learning
Q.3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of visual communication?
Ans. The advantages of visual communications are:
(i) Easy Transmission: In the case of visual communication the message can be transmitted easily without uttering a word.
(ii) Clear: Visual Communication is constant and gives a very clear picture of the message which is to be sent and thus the chances of misunderstanding are very less.
(iii) Effective Communication: Communication through the visual medium is very effective. Emotions can be expressed much better through visual means than through words.
(iv) Creates Interest: Colourful paintings, photographs, maps, and graphs, etc. make communication, interesting & motivate the viewer.
- Ba llb 3rd semester notes pdf communication-Visual Communication Advantages and Disadvantages of Visual Communication complete guide for learning
The disadvantages of visual communication are :
(i) it is suitable for brief and simple messages.
(ii) It is effective when used with other media particularly oral Communication.
(iii) If not attractive and eye-catching, then visual messages are generally ignored at the first glance.
Q. 4. What are the common barriers to communication? How do you overcome them?
Ans. Communication is the nervous system of an enterprise. It is said to be the No. 1. management problem today. “It serves as the lubricant, fostering for the smooth operations of the management process.” Thus, it is very essential for the management to maintain an efficient flow of communication in all directions. But in practice, all messages are not effectively transmitted or received. Several obstructions, blockades, hurdles, stoppages, or bottlenecks, called barriers to communication, distort. the message and make communication ineffective. These communication barriers lead to misunderstanding and conflict between men living in the same community, working on the same job, and even persons living in different parts of the world who even do not know each other. A large number of managerial problems are the result of ineffective or faulty communication. Significant improvement in managerial efficiency can be made if communication barriers are toned down or minimized. Some of the important barriers to communication are the following:
1. Physical Barriers. Communication is a two-way process, distance between the sender and the receiver of the message is an important barrier to communication. Noise and environmental factors also block communication.
2. Personal Barriers. Personal factors like difference in judgment, social values, inferiority complex, bias attitude, the pressure of time, inability to communicate, etc. widen the psychological distance between the communicator and the communicatee.
3. Semantic or Language Barriers. Semantic is the scientific meaning. The same words and symbols carry different meanings to different people. Difficulties in communication arise when the sender and the receiver of the message use words or symbols in different senses. The meaning intended by the sender may be quite different from the meaning followed by the receiver. People interpret the message in terms of their own behavior and experience. Sometimes, the language used by the sender may not at all be followed by the receiver.
4. Status Barriers (Superior-Subordinate Relationship). Status or position in the hierarchy of an organization is one of the fundamental barriers that obstruct the free flow of information. A superior may give only selected information to his subordinates so as to maintain status differences. Subordinates, usually, tend to convey only those things which the superiors would appreciate. This creates distortion in upward communication. Sometimes, “the superior feels that he cannot fully admit to his subordinates those problems, conditions or results which may affect adversely on his ability and judgment. To do so would undermine his position as a superior being in the formal organization.” This causes distortion in downward communication. A subordinate may also feel reluctant to report his shortcomings or may not seek classification on instructions that are subject to different interpretations for fear of loss of prestige in the eyes of the superior.
5. Organisational Structure Barriers. Effective communication largely depends upon a sound organizational structure. If the structure is, complex involving several layers of management, the breakdown or distortion in communication will arise. It is an established fact that every layer cuts off a bit of information. Moreover, information traveling through formal structure introduces rigidity and causes delay because of long lines of communication. Similarly, lack of instructions for further Conveying information to the subordinated and heavy pressure of work at certain levels of authority also acts as barriers to effective communication.
6. Barriers due to Inadequate Attention. Inadequate attention to the message makes communication less effective and the message is likely to be misunderstood. Inattention may arise because of the over-business of the communicatee or because of the message being contrary to his expectations and beliefs. The simple failure to read notices, minutes, and reports is also a common feature. Whatever be the reason, communication remains only a one-way process and there is no understanding of the message if the receiver pays little attention to the message.
7. Premature Evaluation. Some people have the tendency to form a judgment before listening to the entire message. This is known as premature evaluation. Premature evaluation distorts understanding and acts as a barrier to effective communication.
8. Emotional Attitude. Barriers may also arise due to emotional attitude because when emotions are strong, it is difficult to know the frame of mind of her person or group. Emotional attitudes of both, the communicator as well as the communicatee, obstruct the free flow of transmission and understanding of messages.
9. Resistance to Change. It is a general tendency of human beings to stick to old and customary patterns of life. They may resist change to maintain the status quo. Thus, when new ideas are being communicated to introduce a change, it is likely to be overlooked or even opposed. This resistance to change creates an important obstacle to effective communication.
10. Barriers due to Lack of Mutual Trust. Communication means sharing ideas in common. Thus, one will freely transfer information and understanding with another only when there is mutual trust between the two. When there is a lack of mutual trust between the communicator and the communicatee, the message is not followed. Credibility gaps, i.e., inconsistency in saying and doing, also cause a lack of mutual trust which acts as a basic obstacle to effective communication.
Overcoming Barriers to Communication
The following guidelines should be followed to overcome barriers to communication:
(a) Using Proper Language. Semantic distortions may be minimized by communicating the message in simple language. The use of technical terms should be minimized. All information should be so worked as to reach the level of the readership.
(b) Developing Relations. Business requires joint efforts for accomplishing its goals. The need is, therefore, to develop proper relations between different people working in the office. An office manager should respect the dignity and authority of his subordinates and be kind to them. Subordinates should also trust their superior and keep him informed about their dealings with other departments and the progress of their work.
(c) Feedback. Feedback is important in improving communication. When a message is communicated through face-to-face personal contact with the subordinate, facial expression may provide useful feedback. Performance reports, suggestions, and question clarification are also useful in providing the necessary feedback.
(d) Communication through Action and Deeds. When a message is communicated without being acted upon, it tends to distort the current communication from the office manager. The main reason is that action and deeds often speak louder and clearer than words. If acts of the senior differ from what he says subordinates will gradually become used to ‘listen’ to what he does and not what he says.
To conclude, the major step in overcoming barriers to communication is to develop an awareness about the existence of some degree of distortion. The exchange of information and understanding at all levels in the organization should be improved as far as possible.
Q. 5. “In business communication, courtesy and clarity are as important as conciseness and completeness.” Discuss.
Discuss the general principles of effective communication?
Ans. Effective communication is essential for the success of an organization. It is a two-way process. Communication is effective if the message is understood and acted upon by the receiver. Communication for the sake of communication is fruitless. It must aim at some desired response or objective. For this, a manager should develop the ability to communicate effectively. For communication to be effective, there are four essentials:
(ii) Understanding of the message.
(iii) Acceptance of the message.
(iv) Action on the message.
These essentials can be achieved only if certain guidelines are kept in mind. Following principles, if followed, shall help, in making communication more effective :1. Clarity of ideas. The idea or a thought which is a source of communication should be clear in the mind of the speaker or writer. If an idea is not clear in the mind of a communicator, he cannot express it clearly.
2. Objectivity. Every communication should be with some purpose or object. It is the object which shall determine the language and style of communication. Aimless communication is gossip.
3. Adequacy. The message to be given must be sufficient to create understanding and achieve the goal. Communication should be complete in itself. The message must help or benefit the receiver.
4. Consistency. In order to make communication effective, the message should be linked with the previous message. The starting sentence of a letter should show such a link. We start a letter with the sentence “Reference your letter number….dated….” or “Reference our telephonic talk….”. With this sentence, the communicator is linking the message with previous communication. It shall help in understanding. The message should also be consistent with the objects of the organization.
5. Timely. Communication must be on time. If communication is not in proper time, it shall lose its significance. Delayed communication is only of historic value. Outdated communication is useless. So messages must be conveyed at the appropriate times.
6. Feedback. Communication is not complete unless the reaction or response of the receiver is obtained by the sender. Therefore, feedback must be encouraged and analyzed. Follow-up-action helps communication to be effective.
7. Correctness. Communication must be correct in stating facts. Use of correct language, punctuations, tone, and choice of words help ineffective transmission of the message. The use of simple, brief and clear language facilitates understanding. Good hand-writing and clear speech shall also help.
8. Attentiveness. One should be attentive at the time of transmitting or receiving the message. The communicator should try to make the message interesting. He must know the interests and needs of the people with whom he communicates. On the other hand, communicated must read or listen to the message carefully.
9. Appropriateness. The media used for communicating the message should be proper and suitable. The channel of communication may be oral or written depending upon the need and purpose.
10. Consultation. The principle of consultation means, at the time of planning the communication, people around you must be consulted. It shall help in anticipating problems and improving the methodology in the process of communication.
11. Organisation Structure. For effective communication, the organization structure should be sound and appropriate. As far as possible, communication should be directed. It is only possible if levels in an organization are less. The use of informal channels should also be encouraged. Both formal and informal organization channels supplement each other.
12. Proper Environment. The environment in which the communication takes place also affects the communication process. The environment may be physical, social, or political. It has an impact on the psychology of both parties. Physical factors like noise- internal or external–cause the barrier to effective transmission. So for effective communication, the office must exercise noise control. The social and political environment affects communication with subordinates and unions.
13. Mutual Trust and Confidence. A sense of mutual trust and confidence must be generated to promote the free flow of information. This principle is most important. All other principles will prove ineffective in the absence of mutual trust and confidence between communicator and communicatee.
The American Management Association has given the following ‘COMMANDMENTS’ of good communication:
1. Seek to clarify your idea before communicating.
2. Examine the purpose of each communication.
3. Consider the total physicał setting whenever you communicate.
4. Consult with others, where appropriate, in planning communication.
5. Be mindful, while you communicate the overtones as well as basic content of your message.
6. Take the opportunity, when it arises, to convey something of help or value to the receiver.
7. Follow-up your communication.
8. Communication for tomorrow as well as today.
9. Be sure your actions support your communications.
10. Seek not only to be understood but understand.
Efforts should be made to implement these principles for making communication more effective and meaningful. However, perfect communication is never possible but one must try to improve it on the basis of his experiences and practice. if these principles are ignored or not followed, then the communication process may face various difficulties or barriers.