Very Short Answer Type Question for Legal System and Society
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1. Give the definition of ‘Caste’?
Ans. In India, the caste system is a special type of social stratification found mostly both in ancient and modern periods. There are a number of definitions of caste which points to its complex and intricate structure. They are:
(1) Green: “Caste is a system of stratification in which mobility, up and down the status ladder, at least ideally may not occur.”
Maclver & Page: “When the status is wholly pre-determined so that men are born to their lot without any hope of changing it, then class takes the extreme form of caste.”
Q. 2. Write down any five features of the caste system in India?
Ans. (1) Caste is innate and by birth. Every member of Hindu Society is not only born into a family but also into a caste. One cannot change one’s caste. A Hindu who is born into a caste lives with it and dies in it, caste is a social inheritance.
(2) Caste is rigid and immovable. The caste system is absolutely rigid as far as its outlook is concerned, It is also the basis of Social stratification, hence “the mobility up and down the status ladder, at least ideally may not occur.”
(3) Caste is endogamous. Hindu Society enjoins its members to marry within their caste or subsect. No intercaste marriage is approved.
(4) Each caste is dependent on other castes of the village level. Their dependence is not only economic but also social, cultural, and religious.
(5) Each caste has its own culture that is autonomous to some extent.
Q.3. What do you understand by the concept of the Varna system in India?
Ans. The term ‘Varna’ literally means color. Originally it has been used to refer to the distinction between Aryan (Gaura Varna) and Dasa (Shyam Varna). The word ‘Varna’ is evolved from the Sanskrit root ‘vri’ meaning choice. In this sense, varna means anything chosen by an individual according to his choice. Varna’s system is as old as the arrival of the Arya culture.
According to Mandelbaum, “The origin story of varna, is first noted in the earliest scripture, the Rigveda (in Purusha-Sukta). It states that the four varnas came into being from the body of the primeval man. From his mouth issued the Brahmins, who became priests and scholars. From his arms came the Kshatriyas, warriors, and rulers, from his thighs, came the Vaishyas, tradesmen, and from his feet rose the Shudras, Cultivators.”
Manu Smiriti also explained the similar origin of Varnas.
Q.4. Briefly explain the demerits of the Caste System in India?
Ans. The caste system has given rise to several evils. They are:
(1) The caste system leads to untouchability. lt is the hateful expression of caste. The caste system is like a bad coin.
(2) The rigid caste system led to social immobility and occupational mobility. It deprives him of doing a job of his choice.
(3) The caste system often results in putting a man in the wrong occupation. The caste in which one is born always decides one’s position in life or his occupation. The caste has given an aristocracy to birth, not of merit.
(4) The caste system is always an obstacle to national unity.
(5) The caste system is a great obstacle to the social and economic progress of a nation.
Q.5. What do you understand by the word ‘Jajmani System’ in India? Explain it?
Ans. Wiser says, “Jajmani system is an exchange of services and obligations between different castes.”
As per Wiser, “Jajmani system in the service relationship reveals that the priest, accountant, goldsmith, vegetable grower, etc. are the Jajmani of other castes. Each of these castes has a form of service capacity and services to others. Each, in turn, is a master and a servant.
Oscar Lewis says, “Under this system (Jajmani System) each caste group within a village expected to give certain standardized services to the families of other castes. A Khati (carpenter) repairs tools, a nai (barber) cuts hair, but they do not necessarily perform these services for everyone and each man works for a particular family or a group of families with which he has hereditary ties.”
Similarly M.S. Reddy observes, “These service relations which are governed by hereditary tenure are called Jajman-Praja relations.”
Q. 6. What are characteristics exist in jajmani system?
Ans. (1).The.relationship between jajman and praja or kamins (or pardicals or charkaws or halyas, etc.)
(2) Jajmani system is a hereditary relationship in the sense that the Son inherits the occupation or duty from his father.
(3) The jajmani system provides protection to the hereditary occupation.
(4) In Jajmani system payment for services rendered is made in grains and other agricultural yields.
(5). By jajmani system, the farmers were assured of the services while the pajana were secured of their livelihood.
(6) Jajmani system provides relief to the jajmans as well as the kamins, it gives them peace and contentment, there is a feeling of Security in the Society.
Q.7. What are the Merits and demerits of jajmani system in India?
Ans. Merits of Jajmani System
(1) There is job security as employment is hereditary.
(2) There is economic security to each member of kamins.
(3) There is the security of services to jajman.
(4) There is a close personal relationship between jajman and kamins.
Demerits of Jajmani System
(1) The Jajmani system created distinction and discrimination between members of various occupations and castes.
(2) It spread the feeling of superiority among the jajmans.
(3) It is supported by the caste system.
(4) There is immobility among occupations.
(5) There is an exploitation of jajman.
Q.8. Jajmani-system slowly broke down from Indian villages. What reasons behind it, explain?
Ans. Jajmani, system slowly broke down and evaporated Indian villages. The reasons for this are:
(1) Effects of transport and communication which helped for migration.
(2) Introduction of the money economy and the payments in money instead of in-kind with the introduction of the price system.
(3) Social reform movement and religious reform movements.
(4) Changes in occupations and also the introduction of cash cropes.
(5) Change in economic conditions due to industrialization of production.
(6) Rapid growth of large towns and spread of education, urban contacts.
(7) Changes in land tenure laws.
Q.9.Give the meaning and definitions of Class’?
Ans. In developed societies, people classify one another into categories and rank from higher to lower. The process of ranking such categories is called social stratification and the resulting set of ranked categories is called the stratification structure themselves by analogy with the different layers are called “‘Strata’ and they are called as ‘classes’.
Definitions of Social Class
Maclver and Page: A social class is a portion of community marked off from the rest of social status.”
Ginsberg: “A class is a group of individuals who through common descent, the similarity of occupation, wealth and education have come to have a similar mode of life, a similar stock of those ideas, feelings and attitudes and forms of behavior and who on any or all of these grounds meet one another on equal terms as belonging to one group.”
Q. 10. Briefly explain the division of labour in Varna System?
Ans. The aim of the four varna systems in India was the division of labour, i.e., Brahmins to teach, Kshatriyas to govern, Vaishyas to do business, and Sudras to perform physical labour and to provide services to upper varnas. According to Bhagavad Gita, the Varna system find its basis in the inherent qualities and mental tendencies of the individuals, i.e., Satvika, i.e. Brahmins-Satrika-rajasika, i.e. Kshatriya; Rajasika-Tamasika i.e. Vaishya and Tamasa i.e. Shudras.
Dr. Bagwan Das has divided labour under the Indian Varna System in the following classes:
(1) Teacher class
(2) Governing class
(3) Business class
(4) Physical labour class.
These are respectively the Brahmans, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas, and the Shudras.
Q.11.What are the basic differences between Varna and Caste? Explain briefly.
Ans. Varna and Caste though contused to be one are absolutely different from one another.
(1) Varna is assigned according to one’s capabilities of action and mental tendencies, whereas caste is acquired by birth.
(2) Varna system is flexible, while the caste system is rigid.
(3) Varnas are four in number but castes are many.
(4) In the Varna system, there were no restrictions as regards particular occupations for persons belonging to particular varna. But in the caste system occupations have been fixed for particular castes.
(5) Varna system is of ancient times, while the caste system is of the modern period.
(6) Varna refers to racial differences, but caste indicates birth and descent.
Q. 12. Discuss briefly the functions of the caste system from an Indian perspective?
Ans. The caste system is found to offer the following functions to its members:
(1) The caste system has provided every individual with a fixed social environment.
(2) Caste system has created the spirit of co-operation and follow-feeling among members of the same caste.
(3) The caste system has preserved the racial purity of the higher castes by forbidding indiscriminate inter-caste marriages.
(4) Caste system provides for all functions necessary to social life: “Functions from education to scavenging, from the government to domestic. Service of the most menial kind and it makes this provision under the sanction of religion, the belief in karma.”
(5) Caste-system has separated the ‘social life from political life and has maintained its independence from political influences.
Q. 13. Give the characteristics of Social Class?
Ans. Class is a social group within the collectivity. Classes are neither defined by law nor sanctioned by religion. Social class is generally defined as a stratum of people occupying a similar social position in terms of wealth, income, occupation, and factors like education. Class is a system of stratification in which a person’s social status depends upon his or her ‘achievement.
Social class permits an individual to strive for and attain a change in her or his status. In a social class, there is a feeling of equality in relation to members of one’s own class. Individuals belonging to the same social class are expected to maintain similar stands of life and to choose their occupations within a limited rough.
Q. 14. Explain, what is the economic basis of class formation?
Ans. Economic Basis: According to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, class is based only on account of differences in economic power. They have described classes as economic conflict groups which are divided on the basis of the possession of the various instruments of production. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebian, lord and serf guild-master and journey-men, oppressor and oppressed are the names of social classes in different historical periods.
In this way, they believed an industrial society to be composed of two classes: the bourgeois capitalist and the proletariat laborer. Before the industrial revolution, there were two classes: landlords and agriculturists since the main form of production was land. According to them, wealth determines the social status of the individual, and the basis of class stratification is economic differences.
Q. 15. What are the basic differences between caste and class?
Ans. Caste and class have the following fundamental differences:
(1) An individual gets his caste from his very birth and usually, he is not capable of changing it. But a person does not inherit class but finds his place in the class on the basis of his ability, virtues, and qualifications.
(2) Caste is a closed system of organization. A person can not change his caste. On the other hand, the class system of organization is an open one because membership is on the basis of acquiring money, power, or both. One will forego one’s class on losing money or power.
(3) Caste system does hinder democracy, whereas the class system does not hinder democracy.
(4) The caste imposes many restrictions on its members and they are very strictly imposed, whereas there are no restrictions by the class on its members.
(5) The members of a caste should not marry outside the caste without social or caste annoyance. However, the people can marry out of their class without earning any social disreputation or being thrown out of society.
Q. 16. What do you understand by the word ‘Tribe’? Give the definition of Tribe?
Ans. The tribe is a social gathering of a typical type of people having vast differentiations with the rural and urban people. Tribes in the traditional sense are backward people who live aloof from the rest of the people. “Tribe” has been defined as under :
(1) Dr. River: “Tribe is a simple type of social group, in which a common dialect is used by all tribals, they work together, in war and peace.”
(2) Bogardus “The tribal group was based on the need for protection on ties of blood relationship and on the strength of a common religion.”
Q. 17. A Tribal life has the following essential characteristics:
(1) A tribe has common habitation and has definite common topography or geographical areas.
(2) Each tribe has a distinct name of its own.
(3) Members of a tribe have a definite sense of unity.
(4) Members, of a tribe, speak a common dialect.
(5) The members are close and near to each other and have a blood relationship.
(6) The members of the tribe protect each other and work in the spirit of unity.
(7) Many classes constitute together to form a tribe.
Q. 18. Explain what are the basic differences between Caste and Tribe?
Ans. (1) A tribe is a local or territorial group but a caste is a social group.
(2) The tribals have their own common dialect whereas there is no common language, with a caste.
(3) A tribe never imposes restrictions on its members regarding the choice of occupation, but a caste usually promotes hereditary occupations.
(4) Tribe becomes caste with the loss of its territorial attachment but castes cannot become tribes.
(5) Tribe is a political association, whereas caste is a social association.
Q.19. What are the basic differences between Tribe and Harde?
Ans. A nomadic harde is a very small group of individuals. Tribe is sometimes confused as a synonym for Harde. But, in. fact, the tribe is distinct from hard in the following issues:
(1) A Tribe is bigger in size, whereas a horde is a group small in size.
(2) Religion is much developed in a tribe in comparison to a horde. In horde, stern rules are to be followed.
(3) Horde possesses a stronger sense of unity in comparison to the tribe because of the tribe’s big size.
(4) The need for protection is much prominent in the case of a tribe in comparison to a horde.
(5) Tribe is divided into several groups but horde is an undivided single unit.
Q. 20. Write a short note on “The Dowry Prohibition Act 1961′?
Ans. IN order to abolish the custom of dowry the government has passed the Dowry Prohibition Act in 1961. It is true that the laws alone cannot change the people’s customs, habits, and behavior, as Pandit Nehru said during the debate on the Dowry Prohibition Act 1961 that legislation cannot by itself normally solve deep-rooted social problems, but legislation is necessary and essential so that it may give a push and have that education factor as well as the legal shape.” The Dowry Prohibition Act was enacted on 20th May 1961 and came into force on July 1, 1961.
Q 21. What is Untouchability? Discuss its disabilities?
Ans. It is extremely difficult to define untouchability. Dr. D.N. Majumdar has said, “The untouchable castes are those who suffer from various social and political disabilities many of which are traditionally prescribed and socially enforced by higher castes.” In brief, untouchables are those castes who are subject to some disabilities in every walk of life: Social, religious, economic, and untouchables suffer from the following disabilities:
(1) Religious Disabilities: The untouchables are prohibited from entering temples, monasteries, and cremation grounds.
(2) Social Disabilities: (i) The Untouchable was forbidden to draw water from the wells or fetch water from village tanks.
(ii) The children of untouchables did not have the right to enter the schools and sit along with high caste children.
(3) Economic Disabilities: Their conventional occupations were dirty and soiled. works like shoemaking etc.
Q. 22. What are the remedies to Casteism?
Ans. The following are some suggestions concerning the solution of the problems arising out of casteism:
(1) Proper Education: The greatest need for a solution of the problem of casteism is proper education. The educational institutions should be able to provide an atmosphere in which caste distinctions are not encouraged, while at the same time the children are allowed to developed distaste for this kind of discrimination.
(2) Intercaste-Marriage: Another way to combating the continuing increase in casteism is the encouragement of intercaste-marriage.
(3) Lesser use of the word ‘caste’: One way of solving the problems of casteism is to make less frequent use of the word ‘caste’ so that there may be no traces of it left in the mind of the impressionable children and they should not be imbued within the idea of caste distinction.
(4) Cultural and Economic equality: Another way of facing the problem of casteism is to introduce cultural and economic equality in the minds and the lives of the various castes.
Q. 23. Write a short note on Regionalism?
Ans. Of course, regionalism has always been present in India. Regionalism is the sense of affection and attachment for people belonging to one’s own region and hatred for those who belong to some other region. As a result of this, people of one region in India have started looking at people from some other part of the country in the same light in which they are prone to regard foreigners. Now a day, regionalism has become, a serious problem in India.
Q. 24. Explain the political causes behind Regionalism?
Ans. The main reason for regionalism present in the country is of a political nature. In different regions, some people have demanded the formation of regional governments and in this, they have been inspired by regional interest and by aims of gaining power. In this direction, a major part has been played by the revolutionary Maga party guided by Phizo, the Akali Party of Punjab, and the D.M.K. Party of South and other political parties. The truth is that the leaders of these political parties are responsible for having propagated regionalism in these respective areas. Not only this but even Some representatives from different areas who are members of political parties give prime importance to the interest of their own regions even in the far national interests which are disregarded by them.
Q. 25. Write a short note: “Dowry is a Social Evil”?
Ans. (1) The chief evil of the dowry system is that the parents of the bride are compelled to give it as a price for marriage. If the bride party fails to give the promised amount in full at the time of marriage the bride suffers. They are not well treated and respected in their in-law’s families. Thus the condition of such girls is very pitiable and miserable.
(2) Due to the dowry system, the general status of women is lowered, female children are unwanted and undesirable and hence ill-treated or even murdered.
(3) The evil of dowry is the cause for the breakage of families and social disorganization.
(4) The status of women is decreasing because of the dowry system.
(5) The matrimonial relations are damaging due to dowry.
Q. 26. Give the meaning and definition of ‘Sanskritisation’?
Ans. According to M.N. Srinivas, “Sanskritisation is” a process by which a low Hindu caste or tribal or other group changes its customs, rituals, ideology, and way of life in the direction of a high, frequently, “twice-born caste.”
There are three basic elements in Sanskritisation. They are:
(1) Imitation: The lower castes imitate the customs, values, and behavior patterns of the upper castes.
(2) Closeness: The lower castes through Sanskritisation come nearer to the upper castes.
(3) Social Mobility: Generally, Sanskritisation helps the lower castes to move up in the social ladder.
Q.27. Explain what changes seem to be in marriage, in Modern Indian Society?
Ans. (1) Almost all child marriages disappeared.
(2) Parental choice in the selection of a mate is decreasing.
(3) The movement for the eradication of the dowry system has been increasing.
(4) The marriage age of boys and girls has been increased to 21 years and 18 years respectively.
(5) A number of social reformers and educated people are propagating inter-caste marriages. A number of State Governments have taken several measures like cash awards, preferences in jobs, etc. for those who marry outside their caste.
(6) There is a slight change with regard to divorce people are coming forward to marry divorced women and men.
(7) Widow marriages have not been looked down and the sati custom reached zero levels except a few cases here and there.
Q. 28. What is the meaning of casteism?
Ans. Casteism is partial or one-sided loyalty in favor of a particular caste, lien any mode of thinking assumes the form of an ism, and it becomes rigid & partial.
K. M. Panikkar, “In this way, it is only because of casteism that the smiths want to benefit only the Smiths while the joneses want to come to the aid of the other joneses. It matters Ettle if the members of the other castes are irreparably harmed if it does not cause any concern to the Smiths and Joneses.”
Q. 29. What are the basic differences between Tradition and Modernity?
Ans. It may see that modernity is the polar opposite of tradition. Traditionalism refers to old traditions and customs, Traditionalism is non-materialistic. It gives less importance to an individual and more to the organization. It also gives importance to religion and customs. But modernization is an adaptive process. It involves transformation and adoption of tradition but not its supersedence. Since modernization stands for a rational approach to all aspects of social life, it is not opposed to tradition because all traditions are not necessarily irrational, but it is certainly opposed to traditionalism which is the tendency to think of all past beliefs and practics as immutable.
Q. 30. What do you mean by Industrialization?
Ans. Moore says, “Industrialization is the extensive use of inanimate sources of power in the production of economic goods and services.”
The concept of industrialization is not limited solely to manufacturing undertakings, as agriculture and services such as transportation and communication are also subject to mechanization. The development of the factory system of production also expanded to the corporate business method. The use of machines gave rise to a greater division of labor. The new modes of production resulted in a great increase in production and reduction of unit cost. Industrialization gives rise to an economic organization that influences all sections of the society, Industrial society is dynamic.
Q. 31. What are the features of Urbanism? Explain.
Ans. Louis-Wirth says, “Urbanization is a process of extension or accentuation of the mode of life, characteristic of a city.”
According to Wirth, the features of Urbanism are:
(1) A complex division of labor with a diversified occupational structure forms a major basis of the system of Social stratification.
(2) High territorial and social mobility.
(3) Marked functional dependence of the population.
(4) Substantial personal anonymity in interpersonal contacts and segmentalization of social roles and role interaction.
(5) Reliance on indirect modes of social control.
(6) Normative device.
Q. 32. What is the meaning of urbanization Define the term urbanization?
Ans. According to Louis Wirth, Urbanization is a process of extension or accentuation of the mode of life, characteristic of a city.
J.C. Mitchel defines urbanization as the process of becoming urban moving to cities, changing from agriculture to other pursuits common to cities, and corresponding changing of behavior patterns.
According to Kingsley Davis, Urbanization is the switch from ‘spread out to the concentration pattern of human settlement.
Q. 33. Explain, what are the causes behind urbanization in India?
Ans. The following are some of the causes for urbanization in India :
(1) Industrialization in cities provides work for many rural people.
(2) Trade and commerce play an important role in the growth of towns and cities.
(3) Due to the agricultural revolution, the modernization of agriculture helps the growth of industrial and commercial towns and cities.
(4) The various means of transport and communications play an important role in the growth of cities.
(5) As educational facilities are available in towns and cities, many people from rural areas join educational institutions to seek higher, scientific, and vocational education.
Q. 34. Give the meaning and definition of social change?
Ans. MacIver and Page: “Social change is the change which occurs in social relationships alone.” They further say, “It is seen apparent that social change is a process responsive to many types of change, to changes in the man-made conditions of living, to changes in the attitudes and beliefs of men, and to changes that go beyond human control to be biological and physical nature of things.”
Davis: “By social change is meant only such alterations as occurring is a social organization, that is, the structure and function of society.”
Q.35. What are the characteristics of Social Change?
Ans. (1) Social change is a universal phenomenon.
(2) It is community change.
(3) Speed of Social Change is not uniform.
(4) The spread of Social Change is different from time to time.
(5) It may occur either in natural or planned efforts.
(6) It occurs as an essential law.
(7) It results from interaction.
(8) It is the consequence of factors.
(9) It may be in the form of modification or replacement.
Q. 36. What effects of urbanization on India Society? Explain briefly?
Ans. (1) Everyone Is concerned about himself or his friends and lacks sympathy for others.
(2) As the population increases in cities, there is a decline in control of family and caste on the behavior of an individual.
(3) As no elder man is available at home, there is a decline in family control over children.
(4) There is a change in the status of women in cities and there is a great awakening among women,
(5) There are sprawling slums in big Indian towns.
(6) In cities, the joint family system has broken down.
(7) There is an increase in, the incidence of crime in cities.
Q 37. Explain the characteristics of Westernization in short?
Ans. Westernization refers to changes brought about in Indian society during British rule and which continues even after independence. The characteristics of westernization are:
(1) Westernization helped the introduction of scientific and technological inventions.
(2) A number of changes took place in the lifestyle, social relations, values, customs, and traditions.
(3) Democratic values, humanitarianism equalitarianism, and secularization spread all over Indian.
(4) It established bureaucracy, police, army, educational and legal institutions.
(5) It facilitated railways, road transport, boat transport and telegraph, radio, printing press, and other communications.
(6) Urbanization Industrialization and Sanskritisation were influenced.
(7) Changed the status of women.
Q. 38. What do you mean by modernization, define it?
Ans. Eisenstadt says, “Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the Seventeenth to the nineteenth century and then have, spread to other European countries and from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian and African countries.”
Denial Lerner has defined modernization as “the process of social change whereby less developed societies acquire characteristics common to the more developed.” He further states that modernization refers to a ‘disquieting positivist spirit’ touching public institutions as well as private aspirations.
Q. 39. Explain the concept of Division of Labor in Indian tribes?
Ans. Among the Indian tribes, division of labor varies from the simple husband and wife sharing the responsibilities to the division of tasks based on vocations. Among the tribes like those of Andamanese, women look after the welfare of the children. Among the chanchus men hunt, while women take care of the cooking. Among the Bhils, men go hunting while women and children collect forest produce. Among the Gonds, there is a wide range of specializations. Among the Todas, women are restricted to their homes while men handle the buffaloes and milk them. The overall division of labor varies from tribe to tribe.
Q.40. Explain the feature of Tribal Economy in brief?
Ans. (1) The economic activities are organized on the basis of co-operation and community interest.
(2) Tribals live below the life of poverty and utter scarcity. They work very hard for livelihood.
(3) There is no division of labor on the basis of specialization.
(4) The production is done without technical instruments and leads to the wastage of materials.
(5) For securing economic ends, religion and magic activities are employed by the tribals.
Q. 41. Write a short note on “The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856?
Ans. Through the efforts of Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act was passed in 1856 to render remarriage of Hindu Widows valid and to legalize the legitimacy of children, irrespective of caste regulations concerning remarriage. A widow shall not, by reason of her remarriage, forfeit any property or any right to which she would otherwise be entitled, and every widow who has remarried shall have the same rights of inheritance as she would have had, had such marriage been her first marriage. This Act is in existence till today.
Q. 42. Write a short note on The Prevention of Sati Act, 1829?
Ans. The Prevention of Sati Act, 1829: With the initiation of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Lord William Bentick took personal interest and boldly struck the practice with the enactment of the Sati Act. The Prevention of Sati Act of 1829 made the burning or burying alive of widows culpable homicide, punishable with fine and imprisonment.